A positive or a negative confounding variable? A simple teaching aid for clinicians and students

Abla Mehio-Sibai, Manning Feinleib, Tarek A. Sibai, Haroutune K. Armenian

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Anticipating the direction of a confounding variable can be problematic especially to introductory students. Using elementary rules of mathematics, we describe below a simple instructional tool for deriving the direction of confounding bias. The tool is illustrated with examples and a heuristic mathematical justification is also described.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)421-423
Number of pages3
JournalAnnals of Epidemiology
Volume15
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2005

Keywords

  • Bias
  • Negative Confounding
  • Positive Confounding
  • Teaching Aid

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Epidemiology

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