Anticipating the direction of a confounding variable can be problematic especially to introductory students. Using elementary rules of mathematics, we describe below a simple instructional tool for deriving the direction of confounding bias. The tool is illustrated with examples and a heuristic mathematical justification is also described.
- Negative Confounding
- Positive Confounding
- Teaching Aid
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health