A population-based survey of Haemophilus influenzae type b nasopharyngeal carriage prevalence in Lombok Island, Indonesia

Bradford D. Gessner, Agustinus Sutanto, Mark Steinhoff, S. Soewignjo, Anton Widjaya, Carib Nelson, Soemarjati Arjoso

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Background. The Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) nasopharyngeal carriage prevalence and invasive disease incidence rates are unknown in Indonesia; consequently Hib vaccine is not included in the routine vaccine schedule. Methods. To determine carriage prevalence we conducted a population-based, island-wide prospective study of a systematic sample of 484 children 0 to 2 years of age in Lombok, Indonesia. We conducted a risk factor questionnaire and determined serotypes and antibiotic sensitivity patterns. Results. We identified 155 H. influenzae isolates, of which 22 were type b and 12 were encapsulated but not type b. The age- and population-weighted Hib carriage prevalence, adjusted for the sampling design, was 4.6% (95% confidence interval, 3.7 to 5.5%). Children younger than 6 months of age had a carriage prevalence less than one-half that of older children, and carriage varied within the four administrative regions of the island; otherwise no risk factors for Hib carriage were identified. All Hib specimens were sensitive to ampicillin and 20 (91%) were sensitive to chloramphenicol. Conclusions. The Hib carriage prevalence in Lombok is similar to that found in developed countries before vaccine introduction. This suggests that further studies should proceed to determine whether Lombok has invasive disease rates as high as those that justified vaccine introduction in developed countries.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S179-S182
JournalPediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Issue number9 SUPPL.
StatePublished - Sep 1 1998


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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