Purpose: To determine the dose-limiting toxicities (DLT), maximum tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of sorafenib in children with refractory extracranial solid tumors and evaluate the tolerability of the solid tumor MTD in children with refractory leukemias. Experimental Design: Sorafenib was administered orally every 12 hours for consecutive 28-day cycles. Pharmacokinetics (day 1 and steady-state) and pharmacodynamics were conducted during cycle 1. Results: Of 65 patients enrolled, 60 were eligible. In the solid tumor cohort (n = 49), 4 of 6 patients experienced a DLT [hypertension, pain, rash/urticaria, thrombocytopenia, alanine aminotransferase (ALT)/aspartate aminotransferase (AST)] at the starting dose (150 mg/m2/dose) which resulted in de-escalation to 105 mg/m2/dose. After eligibility criteria modification and dose re-escalation, the MTD was 200 mg/m 2/dose for solid tumors and 150 mg/m2/dose for leukemias. Sorafenib exposure was highly variable between patients but was within the ranges reported in adults. The apparent sorafenib clearance increased with patient age. Diarrhea, rash, fatigue, and increased ALT/AST were the most common sorafenib-related toxicities. Stable disease for 4 or more cycles was observed in 14 solid tumor patients, and 2 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and FLT3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3ITD) experienced a decrease in bone marrow blasts to less than 5%. Conclusions: The recommended phase II dose of sorafenib administered every 12 hours continuously for children with solid tumors is 200 mg/m2/dose and 150 mg/m2/dose for children with leukemias. Sorafenib toxicities and distribution in children are similar to adults. The activity of sorafenib in children with AML and FLT3ITD is currently being evaluated, and a phase II study for select solid tumors is ongoing.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research