Background: There is significant interest in the use of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) as a treatment modality for liver metastases. A variety of SABR fractionation schemes are in clinical use. We conducted a phase I dose-escalation study to determine the maximum tolerated dose of single-fraction liver SABR. Methods: Patients with liver metastases from solid tumors, for whom a critical volume dose constraint could be met, were treated with single-fraction SABR. Seven patients were enrolled to the first group, with a prescription dose of 35 Gy. Dose was then escalated to 40 Gy in a single fraction, and seven more patients were treated at this dose level. Patients were followed for toxicity and underwent serial imaging to assess lesion response and local control. Results: Fourteen patients with 17 liver metastases were treated. There were no dose-limiting toxicities observed at either dose level. Nine of the 13 lesions assessable for treatment response showed a complete radiographic response to treatment; the remainder showed partial response. Local control of irradiated lesions was 100 % at a median imaging follow-up of 2.5 years. Two-year overall survival for all patients was 78 %. Conclusions: For selected patients with liver metastases, single-fraction SABR at doses of 35 and 40 Gy is tolerable and shows promising signs of efficacy at intermediate follow-up.
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