Simultaneously targeting other pathways could increase the activity of PD-1 blockade in lymphoid malignancies not sensitive to single-agent blockade. We explored the safety and efficacy of combined PD-1 and CTLA-4 or KIR blockade in patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) lymphoid malignancies. This phase 1b trial enrolled adult patients with R/R classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), or multiple myeloma (MM). Patients received nivolumab plus ipilimumab (nivo/ipi) or lirilumab (nivo/liri) until complete response (CR), progression, or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was safety and tolerability, while secondary endpoints included overall (ORR) and CR rates (CRR), progression-free and overall survival. Sixty-five patients were treated with nivo/ipi, and 72 with nivo/liri. Twenty-nine percent of patients experienced grade 3–4 treatment-related adverse events with nivo/ipi, and 15% with nivo/liri. In cHL, ORR was 74% for nivo/ipi and 76% for nivo/liri, CRRs were 23% and 24%, respectively. In B-NHL and T-NHL, ORR range was 9–22% and CRR was 0–6%. No patient with MM had an objective response. While both combinations were active in cHL, the toxicity of nivo/ipi was higher than expected from nivolumab alone. These data suggest no meaningful improvement in the efficacy of the combinations over single-agent nivolumab in the diseases studied.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research