A peptide enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of human immunodeficiency virus type-2 (HIV-2) antibodies: An evaluation on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed samples

R. Kannangai, S. Ramalingam, K. J. Prakash, O. C. Abraham, R. George, R. C. Castillo, D. H. Schwartz, M. V. Jesudason, G. Sridharan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections differ in prognosis, and may also require different prevention and/or treatment approaches. Thus, estimating the true prevalence of HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections, as well as co-infections, is a critical step in controlling the disease. There are a few commercial ELISA and immunoblot kits, which can differentiate between HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections. However, some of these assays overestimate the prevalence of dual infection. Hence, it is necessary to develop assays capable of discriminating between the two infections. Objectives: To develop a synthetic HIV-2 env based peptide ELISA for the detection of HIV-2 specific antibodies and evaluate its performance on samples from HIV positive individuals previously tested by HIV-1 and HIV-2 PCR and HIV seronegative individuals. Study design: We studied 45 HIV seronegative and 63 HIV infected individuals, including 30 HIV-1 PCR and immunoblot positives, 19 HIV-2 PCR and immunoblot positives, five HIV-1 and two PCR and dual immunoblot positives, two PCR negative but positive for HIV-2 by immunoblot and seven dual immunoblot positives who were only positive for HIV-1 by PCR. Results: All 24 HIV-2 PCR positive samples tested were positive by the peptide assay. Among 30 HIV-1 PCR and immunoblot positive samples, only one (3.3%) showed an absorbance value above the cut off level. The seven dual positive samples by immunoblot (only positive for HIV-1 by PCR) were negative by the HIV-2 peptide ELISA. There was a 100% concordance between HIV-2 PCR and peptide ELISA. The sensitivity, specificity, and the likelihood ratio for the peptide ELISA were 100,94.9, and 19.5, respectively when compared against the PCR findings. Conclusions: This ELISA, using a specific immunodominant epitope (11 amino acids) from the transmembrane (gp36) portion of the HIV-2 envelope glycoprotein showed a high concordance with PCR findings. This can be considered as a highly sensitive, specific and economically feasible assay for the discrimination of HIV-1 and HIV-2, and may serve as an alternative to HIV-2 PCR in epidemiological studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)41-46
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Clinical Virology
Volume22
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 3 2001

Keywords

  • HIV-1
  • HIV-1&2
  • HIV-2
  • India
  • PCR
  • Peptide ELISA

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Virology
  • Infectious Diseases

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