A novel vascular clip design for the reliable induction of 2-kidney, 1-clip hypertension in the rat

Stephen P. Chelko, Chad W. Schmiedt, Tristan H. Lewis, Stephen J. Lewis, Tom P. Robertson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The 2-kidney, 1-clip (2K1C) model has provided many insights into the pathogenesis of renovascular hypertension. However, studies using the 2K1C model often report low success rates of hypertension, with typical success rates of just 40-60%. We hypothesized that these low success rates are due to fundamental design flaws in the clips traditionally used in 2K1C models. Specifically, the gap widths of traditional silver clips may not be maintained during investigator handling and these clips may also be easily dislodged from the renal artery following placement. Therefore, we designed and tested a novel vascular clip possessing design features to maintain both gap width and position around the renal artery. In this initial study, application of these new clips to the left renal artery produced reliable and consistent levels of hypertension in rats. Nine-day application of clips with gap widths of 0.27, 0.25, and 0.23 mm elicited higher mean arterial blood pressures of 112 ± 4, 121 ± 6, and 135 ± 7 mmHg, respectively (n = 8 for each group), than those of sham-operated controls (95 ± 2 mmHg, n = 8). Moreover, 8 out of 8 rats in each of the 0.23 and 0.25 mm 2K1C groups were hypertensive, whereas 7 out of 8 rats in the 0.27 mm 2K1C group were hypertensive. Plasma renin concentrations were also increased in all 2K1C groups compared with sham-operated controls. In summary, this novel clip design may help eliminate the large degree of unreliability commonly encountered with the 2K1C model.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)362-366
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of applied physiology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Feb 2012


  • Mean arterial pressure
  • Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
  • Renovascular hypertension

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)

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