A novel object-independent 'balanced' reference scan for echo-planar imaging

Scott B. Reeder, Anthony Z. Faranesh, Ergin Atalar, Elliot R. McVeigh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations


Interleaved echo-planar imaging (EPI) is susceptible to significant ghosting artifacts, resulting primarily from system time delays that cause data matrix misregistration. Most EPI applications rely on 'reference scans' to measure delays, and post-processing algorithms are used to correct these errors. Unfortunately, delay estimates made with most reference scan techniques are object dependent, since they are biased by magnetic field inhomogeneities and chemical shift. The current work describes the effects of field inhomogeneities and their influence on system time delay estimation. Subsequently, a new, object-independent 'balanced' reference method using two readout echo trains is proposed for time delay measurements.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)847-852
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1999


  • EPI
  • MRI
  • Reconstruction
  • Reference scans

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology


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