Purpose: Determination of intra-tumor high-uptake area using 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose ([18F]FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is an important consideration for dose painting in radiation treatment applications. The aim of our study was to develop a framework towards automated segmentation and labeling of homogeneous vs. heterogeneous tumors in clinical lung [18F]FDG-PET with the capability of intra-tumor high-uptake region delineation. Procedures: We utilized and extended a fuzzy random walk PET tumor segmentation algorithm to delineate intra-tumor high-uptake areas. Tumor textural feature (TF) analysis was used to find a relationship between tumor type and TF values. Segmentation accuracy was evaluated quantitatively utilizing 70 clinical [18F]FDG-PET lung images of patients with a total of 150 solid tumors. For volumetric analysis, the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and Hausdorff distance (HD) measures were extracted with respect to gold-standard manual segmentation. A multi-linear regression model was also proposed for automated tumor labeling based on TFs, including cross-validation analysis. Results: Two-tailed t test analysis of TFs between homogeneous and heterogeneous tumors revealed significant statistical difference for size-zone variability (SZV), intensity variability (IV), zone percentage (ZP), proposed parameters II and III, entropy and tumor volume (p < 0.001), dissimilarity, high intensity emphasis (HIE), and SUVmin (p < 0.01). Lower statistical differences were observed for proposed parameter I (p = 0.02), and no significant differences were observed for SUVmax and SUVmean. Furthermore, the Spearman rank analysis between visual tumor labeling and TF analysis depicted a significant correlation for SZV, IV, entropy, parameters II and III, and tumor volume (0.68 ≤ ρ ≤ 0.84) and moderate correlation for ZP, HIE, homogeneity, dissimilarity, parameter I, and SUVmin (0.22 ≤ ρ ≤ 0.52), while no correlations were observed for SUVmax and SUVmean (ρ < 0.08). The multi-linear regression model for automated tumor labeling process resulted in R2 and RMSE values of 0.93 and 0.14, respectively (p < 0.001), and generated tumor labeling sensitivity and specificity of 0.93 and 0.89. With respect to baseline random walk segmentation, the results showed significant (p < 0.001) mean DSC, HD, and SUVmean error improvements of 21.4 ± 11.5 %, 1.4 ± 0.8 mm, and 16.8 ± 8.1 % in homogeneous tumors and 7.4 ± 4.4 %, 1.5 ± 0.6 mm, and 7.9 ± 2.7 % in heterogeneous lesions. In addition, significant (p < 0.001) mean DSC, HD, and SUVmean error improvements were observed for tumor sub-volume delineations, namely 5 ± 2 %, 1.5 ± 0.6 mm, and 7 ± 3 % for the proposed Fuzzy RW method compared to RW segmentation. Conclusion: We proposed and demonstrated an automatic framework for significantly improved segmentation and labeling of homogeneous vs. heterogeneous tumors in lung [18F]FDG-PET images.
- Automated PET image segmentation
- Fuzzy logic
- Heterogeneous tumor delineation
- Random walk
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cancer Research