A new model of diffuse brain injury in rats. Part I: Pathophysiology and biomechanics

A. Marmarou, M. A. Abd-Elfattah Foda, W. Van den Brink, James N Campbell, H. Kita, K. Demetriadou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

This report describes the development of an experimental head injury model capable of producing diffuse brain injury in the rodent. A total of 161 anesthetized adult rats were injured utilizing a simple weight-drop device consisting of a segmented brass weight free-falling through a Plexiglas guide tube. Skull fracture was prevented by cementing a small stainless-steel disc on the calvaria. Two groups of rats were tested: Group 1, consisting of 54 rats, to establish fracture threshold; and Group 2, consisting of 107 animals, to determine the primary cause of death at severe injury levels. Data from Group 1 animals showed that a 450-gm weight falling from a 2-m height (0.9 kg-m) resulted in a mortality rate of 44% with a low incidence (12.5%) of skull fracture. Impact was followed by apnea, convulsions, and moderate hypertension. The surviving rats developed decortication flexion deformity of the forelimbs, with behavioral depression and loss of muscle tone. Data from Group 2 animals suggested that the cause of death was due to central respiratory depression; the mortality rate decreased markedly in animals mechanically ventilated during the impact. Analysis of mathematical models showed that this mass-height combination resulted in a brain acceleration of 900 G and a brain compression gradient of 0.28 mm. It is concluded that this simple model is capable of producing a graded brain injury in the rodent without a massive hypertensive surge or excessive brain- stem damage.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)291-300
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Neurosurgery
Volume80
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1994
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Biomechanical Phenomena
Skull Fractures
Weights and Measures
Cause of Death
Rodentia
Forelimb
Mortality
Stainless Steel
Brain
Polymethyl Methacrylate
Apnea
Craniocerebral Trauma
Skull
Respiratory Insufficiency
Brain Injuries
Brain Stem
Seizures
Theoretical Models
Hypertension
Equipment and Supplies

Keywords

  • biomechanics
  • experimental model
  • head injury
  • pathophysiology
  • rat

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neuroscience(all)

Cite this

Marmarou, A., Abd-Elfattah Foda, M. A., Van den Brink, W., Campbell, J. N., Kita, H., & Demetriadou, K. (1994). A new model of diffuse brain injury in rats. Part I: Pathophysiology and biomechanics. Journal of Neurosurgery, 80(2), 291-300.

A new model of diffuse brain injury in rats. Part I : Pathophysiology and biomechanics. / Marmarou, A.; Abd-Elfattah Foda, M. A.; Van den Brink, W.; Campbell, James N; Kita, H.; Demetriadou, K.

In: Journal of Neurosurgery, Vol. 80, No. 2, 1994, p. 291-300.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Marmarou, A, Abd-Elfattah Foda, MA, Van den Brink, W, Campbell, JN, Kita, H & Demetriadou, K 1994, 'A new model of diffuse brain injury in rats. Part I: Pathophysiology and biomechanics', Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 80, no. 2, pp. 291-300.
Marmarou A, Abd-Elfattah Foda MA, Van den Brink W, Campbell JN, Kita H, Demetriadou K. A new model of diffuse brain injury in rats. Part I: Pathophysiology and biomechanics. Journal of Neurosurgery. 1994;80(2):291-300.
Marmarou, A. ; Abd-Elfattah Foda, M. A. ; Van den Brink, W. ; Campbell, James N ; Kita, H. ; Demetriadou, K. / A new model of diffuse brain injury in rats. Part I : Pathophysiology and biomechanics. In: Journal of Neurosurgery. 1994 ; Vol. 80, No. 2. pp. 291-300.
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