A narrative review of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): clinical, epidemiological characteristics, and systemic manifestations

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease which has had a rapid surge in cases and deaths since it is first documented in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. COVID-19 is caused by the Betacoronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). SARS-CoV-2 uses angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, which is highly expressed in the human lower respiratory tract but also in other tissues, as the cellular entry receptor. Thus, COVID-19 mainly affects the respiratory system but can cause damage to other body systems, including the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, renal, and central nervous systems. We review the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of the infection, focusing on our current understanding of the disease mechanisms and their translation to clinical outcomes, as well as adverse effects on different body systems. We also discuss the epidemiology pathogenesis, clinical, and multi-organ consequences, and highlight some of the research gaps regarding COVID-19.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)815-830
Number of pages16
JournalInternal and Emergency Medicine
Volume16
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2021
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • Clinical symptoms
  • Coronavirus
  • Epidemiology
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Transmission

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Emergency Medicine

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