A multilevel, multicomponent childhood obesity prevention group-randomized controlled trial improves healthier food purchasing and reduces sweet-snack consumption among low-income African-American youth

Angela C.B. Trude, Pamela Surkan, Lawrence J Cheskin, Joel Gittelsohn

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Abstract

Background: Consumption of foods and beverages rich in sugar remains high across all races and ages in the United States. Interventions to address childhood obesity and decrease sugar intake are needed, particularly in low-income settings. Methods: B'more Healthy Communities for Kids (BHCK) was a group-randomized, controlled trial implemented among 9-15-year olds in 30 low-income areas of Baltimore. We increased access to low-sugar foods and beverages at wholesalers and small food stores. Concurrently, we encouraged their purchase and consumption by children through youth-led nutrition education in recreation centers, in-store promotions, text messaging and a social media program directed at caregivers. Sugar consumption (sugar sweetened beverage (SSB), sweets) in youth was assessed pre- (n = 534) and post-intervention (n = 401) using the Block Kids Food Frequency Questionnaire. Purchasing of 38 healthier and 28 less healthier food/beverage varieties in the previous 7 days was assessed via self-report. Multilevel models at the community and individual levels were used. Analyses were stratified by age (younger: 9-12-year olds (n = 339) vs older: 13-15 (n = 170)). Models were controlled for child's sex, race, total daily caloric intake, and caregiver's age and sex. Results: Overall baseline mean healthier food purchasing was 2.5 (+ 3.6; min. 0, max. 34 items per week), and unhealthier food purchasing 4.6 (+ 3.7; 0-19 items per week). Mean intake at baseline for kcal from SSB was 176 (+ 189.1) and 153 (+ 142.5), and % of calories from sweets (i.e. cookies, cakes, pies, donuts, candy, ice cream, sweetened cereals, and chocolate beverages) was 15.9 (+ 9.7) and 15.9 (+ 7.7) in comparison and intervention youth, respectively. Intervention youth increased healthier foods and beverages purchases by 1.4 more items per week than comparison youth (β = 1.4; 95% CI: 0.1; 2.8). After the intervention, there was a 3.5% decrease in kcal from sweets for older intervention youth, compared to the control group (β = - 3.5; 95% CI: -7.76; - 0.05). No impact was seen on SSB consumption. Conclusion: BHCK successfully increased healthier food purchasing variety in youth, and decreased % calories from sweet snacks in older youth. Multilevel, multicomponent environmental childhood obesity programs are a promising strategy to improve eating behaviors among low-income urban youth. Trial registration: NCT02181010 (July 2, 2014, retrospectively registered).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number96
JournalNutrition Journal
Volume17
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 29 2018

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Snacks
Pediatric Obesity
African Americans
Randomized Controlled Trials
Food
Food and Beverages
Beverages
Caregivers
Text Messaging
Candy
Ice Cream
Social Media
Recreation
Baltimore
Feeding Behavior
Energy Intake
Self Report
Education
Control Groups

Keywords

  • Adolescent
  • African-American
  • Childhood obesity
  • Consumption of sweets
  • Dietary intake
  • Environmental intervention

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

@article{048ef6637084407f9561c9c643cdda7d,
title = "A multilevel, multicomponent childhood obesity prevention group-randomized controlled trial improves healthier food purchasing and reduces sweet-snack consumption among low-income African-American youth",
abstract = "Background: Consumption of foods and beverages rich in sugar remains high across all races and ages in the United States. Interventions to address childhood obesity and decrease sugar intake are needed, particularly in low-income settings. Methods: B'more Healthy Communities for Kids (BHCK) was a group-randomized, controlled trial implemented among 9-15-year olds in 30 low-income areas of Baltimore. We increased access to low-sugar foods and beverages at wholesalers and small food stores. Concurrently, we encouraged their purchase and consumption by children through youth-led nutrition education in recreation centers, in-store promotions, text messaging and a social media program directed at caregivers. Sugar consumption (sugar sweetened beverage (SSB), sweets) in youth was assessed pre- (n = 534) and post-intervention (n = 401) using the Block Kids Food Frequency Questionnaire. Purchasing of 38 healthier and 28 less healthier food/beverage varieties in the previous 7 days was assessed via self-report. Multilevel models at the community and individual levels were used. Analyses were stratified by age (younger: 9-12-year olds (n = 339) vs older: 13-15 (n = 170)). Models were controlled for child's sex, race, total daily caloric intake, and caregiver's age and sex. Results: Overall baseline mean healthier food purchasing was 2.5 (+ 3.6; min. 0, max. 34 items per week), and unhealthier food purchasing 4.6 (+ 3.7; 0-19 items per week). Mean intake at baseline for kcal from SSB was 176 (+ 189.1) and 153 (+ 142.5), and {\%} of calories from sweets (i.e. cookies, cakes, pies, donuts, candy, ice cream, sweetened cereals, and chocolate beverages) was 15.9 (+ 9.7) and 15.9 (+ 7.7) in comparison and intervention youth, respectively. Intervention youth increased healthier foods and beverages purchases by 1.4 more items per week than comparison youth (β = 1.4; 95{\%} CI: 0.1; 2.8). After the intervention, there was a 3.5{\%} decrease in kcal from sweets for older intervention youth, compared to the control group (β = - 3.5; 95{\%} CI: -7.76; - 0.05). No impact was seen on SSB consumption. Conclusion: BHCK successfully increased healthier food purchasing variety in youth, and decreased {\%} calories from sweet snacks in older youth. Multilevel, multicomponent environmental childhood obesity programs are a promising strategy to improve eating behaviors among low-income urban youth. Trial registration: NCT02181010 (July 2, 2014, retrospectively registered).",
keywords = "Adolescent, African-American, Childhood obesity, Consumption of sweets, Dietary intake, Environmental intervention",
author = "Trude, {Angela C.B.} and Pamela Surkan and Cheskin, {Lawrence J} and Joel Gittelsohn",
year = "2018",
month = "10",
day = "29",
doi = "10.1186/s12937-018-0406-2",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "17",
journal = "Nutrition Journal",
issn = "1475-2891",
publisher = "BioMed Central",
number = "1",

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TY - JOUR

T1 - A multilevel, multicomponent childhood obesity prevention group-randomized controlled trial improves healthier food purchasing and reduces sweet-snack consumption among low-income African-American youth

AU - Trude, Angela C.B.

AU - Surkan, Pamela

AU - Cheskin, Lawrence J

AU - Gittelsohn, Joel

PY - 2018/10/29

Y1 - 2018/10/29

N2 - Background: Consumption of foods and beverages rich in sugar remains high across all races and ages in the United States. Interventions to address childhood obesity and decrease sugar intake are needed, particularly in low-income settings. Methods: B'more Healthy Communities for Kids (BHCK) was a group-randomized, controlled trial implemented among 9-15-year olds in 30 low-income areas of Baltimore. We increased access to low-sugar foods and beverages at wholesalers and small food stores. Concurrently, we encouraged their purchase and consumption by children through youth-led nutrition education in recreation centers, in-store promotions, text messaging and a social media program directed at caregivers. Sugar consumption (sugar sweetened beverage (SSB), sweets) in youth was assessed pre- (n = 534) and post-intervention (n = 401) using the Block Kids Food Frequency Questionnaire. Purchasing of 38 healthier and 28 less healthier food/beverage varieties in the previous 7 days was assessed via self-report. Multilevel models at the community and individual levels were used. Analyses were stratified by age (younger: 9-12-year olds (n = 339) vs older: 13-15 (n = 170)). Models were controlled for child's sex, race, total daily caloric intake, and caregiver's age and sex. Results: Overall baseline mean healthier food purchasing was 2.5 (+ 3.6; min. 0, max. 34 items per week), and unhealthier food purchasing 4.6 (+ 3.7; 0-19 items per week). Mean intake at baseline for kcal from SSB was 176 (+ 189.1) and 153 (+ 142.5), and % of calories from sweets (i.e. cookies, cakes, pies, donuts, candy, ice cream, sweetened cereals, and chocolate beverages) was 15.9 (+ 9.7) and 15.9 (+ 7.7) in comparison and intervention youth, respectively. Intervention youth increased healthier foods and beverages purchases by 1.4 more items per week than comparison youth (β = 1.4; 95% CI: 0.1; 2.8). After the intervention, there was a 3.5% decrease in kcal from sweets for older intervention youth, compared to the control group (β = - 3.5; 95% CI: -7.76; - 0.05). No impact was seen on SSB consumption. Conclusion: BHCK successfully increased healthier food purchasing variety in youth, and decreased % calories from sweet snacks in older youth. Multilevel, multicomponent environmental childhood obesity programs are a promising strategy to improve eating behaviors among low-income urban youth. Trial registration: NCT02181010 (July 2, 2014, retrospectively registered).

AB - Background: Consumption of foods and beverages rich in sugar remains high across all races and ages in the United States. Interventions to address childhood obesity and decrease sugar intake are needed, particularly in low-income settings. Methods: B'more Healthy Communities for Kids (BHCK) was a group-randomized, controlled trial implemented among 9-15-year olds in 30 low-income areas of Baltimore. We increased access to low-sugar foods and beverages at wholesalers and small food stores. Concurrently, we encouraged their purchase and consumption by children through youth-led nutrition education in recreation centers, in-store promotions, text messaging and a social media program directed at caregivers. Sugar consumption (sugar sweetened beverage (SSB), sweets) in youth was assessed pre- (n = 534) and post-intervention (n = 401) using the Block Kids Food Frequency Questionnaire. Purchasing of 38 healthier and 28 less healthier food/beverage varieties in the previous 7 days was assessed via self-report. Multilevel models at the community and individual levels were used. Analyses were stratified by age (younger: 9-12-year olds (n = 339) vs older: 13-15 (n = 170)). Models were controlled for child's sex, race, total daily caloric intake, and caregiver's age and sex. Results: Overall baseline mean healthier food purchasing was 2.5 (+ 3.6; min. 0, max. 34 items per week), and unhealthier food purchasing 4.6 (+ 3.7; 0-19 items per week). Mean intake at baseline for kcal from SSB was 176 (+ 189.1) and 153 (+ 142.5), and % of calories from sweets (i.e. cookies, cakes, pies, donuts, candy, ice cream, sweetened cereals, and chocolate beverages) was 15.9 (+ 9.7) and 15.9 (+ 7.7) in comparison and intervention youth, respectively. Intervention youth increased healthier foods and beverages purchases by 1.4 more items per week than comparison youth (β = 1.4; 95% CI: 0.1; 2.8). After the intervention, there was a 3.5% decrease in kcal from sweets for older intervention youth, compared to the control group (β = - 3.5; 95% CI: -7.76; - 0.05). No impact was seen on SSB consumption. Conclusion: BHCK successfully increased healthier food purchasing variety in youth, and decreased % calories from sweet snacks in older youth. Multilevel, multicomponent environmental childhood obesity programs are a promising strategy to improve eating behaviors among low-income urban youth. Trial registration: NCT02181010 (July 2, 2014, retrospectively registered).

KW - Adolescent

KW - African-American

KW - Childhood obesity

KW - Consumption of sweets

KW - Dietary intake

KW - Environmental intervention

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U2 - 10.1186/s12937-018-0406-2

DO - 10.1186/s12937-018-0406-2

M3 - Article

C2 - 30373597

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VL - 17

JO - Nutrition Journal

JF - Nutrition Journal

SN - 1475-2891

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ER -