A morphometric assessment of type I Chiari malformation above the McRae line: A retrospective case-control study in 302 adult female subjects

James R. Houston, Maggie S. Eppelheimer, Soroush Heidari Pahlavian, Dipankar Biswas, Aintzane Urbizu, Bryn A. Martin, Jayapalli Rajiv Bapuraj, Mark Luciano, Philip A. Allen, Francis Loth

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: Type I Chiari malformation (CMI) is a radiologically-defined structural dysmorphism of the hindbrain and posterior cranial fossa (PCF). Traditional radiographic identification of CMI relies on the measurement of the cerebellar tonsils in relation to the foramen magnum with or without associated abnormalities of the neuraxis. The primary goal of this retrospective study was to comprehensively assess morphometric parameters above the McRea line in a group of female CMI patients and normal controls. Material and methods: Twenty-nine morphological measurements were taken on 302 mid-sagittal MR images of adult female CMI patients (n = 162) and healthy controls (n = 140). All MR images were voluntarily provided by CMI subjects through an online database and control participant images were obtained through the Human Connectome Project and a local hospital system. Results: Analyses were performed on the full dataset of adult female MR images and a restricted dataset of 229 participants that were equated for age, race, and body mass index. Eighteen group differences were identified in the PCF area that we grouped into three clusters; PCF structures heights, clivus angulation, and odontoid process irregularity. Fourteen group differences persisted after equating our CMI and control groups on demographic characteristics. Conclusion: PCF structures reliably differ in adult female CMI patients relative to healthy controls. These differences reflect structural abnormalities in the osseous and soft tissue structures of the clivus, odontoid process, and cerebellum. Clinical and pathophysiological implications are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)23-31
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Neuroradiology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2018


  • Chiari I malformation
  • Cranio-vertebral junction
  • MRI
  • Morphometry
  • Odontoid
  • Posterior cranial fossa

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Clinical Neurology

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