Background and Purpose - Although pathophysiological studies of focal cerebral ischemia in nonhuman primates can provide important information not obtainable in rodent models, primate experimentation is limited by considerations of cost, availability, effort, and ethics. A reproducible and quantitative model that minimizes the number of animals necessary to detect differences between treatment groups is therefore crucial. Methods - Eight male baboons (weight, 22±2 kg) underwent left transorbital craniectomy followed by 1 hour of temporary ipsilateral internal carotid artery occlusion at the level of the anterior choroidal artery together with bilateral temporary occlusion of both anterior cerebral arteries (A1) proximal to the anterior communicating artery. A tightly controlled nitrous oxide-narcotic anesthetic allowed for intraoperative motor evoked potential confirmation of middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory ischemia. Animals survived to 72 hours or 10 days if successfully self-caring: Outcomes were assessed with a 100-point neurological grading system, and infarct volume was quantified by planimetric analysis of both MRI and triphenyltetrazolium chloride-stained sections. Results - Infarction volumes (on T2-weighted images) were 32±7% (mean±SEM) of the ipsilateral hemisphere, and neurological scores averaged 29±9. All animals demonstrated evidence of hemispheric infarction, with damage evident in both cortical and subcortical regions in the MCA vascular territory. Histologically determined infarction volumes differed by <3% and correlated with absolute neurological scores (r=0.9, P=0.003). Conclusions - Transorbital temporary occlusion of the entire anterior cerebral circulation with strict control of physiological parameters can reliably produce reperfused MCA territory infarction. The magnitude of the resultant infarct with little interanimal variability diminishes the potential number of animals required to distinguish between 2 treatment regimens. The anatomic distribution of the infarct and associated functional deficits offer comparability to human hemispheric strokes.
- Cerebral ischemia
- Disease models, animal
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Advanced and Specialized Nursing