A method for identifying color vision deficiency malingering

Andrew Pouw, Rustum Karanjia, Alfredo Sadun

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Purpose: To propose a new test to identify color vision deficiency malingering. Methods: An online survey was distributed to 130 truly color vision deficient participants and 160 participants willing to simulate color vision deficiency. The survey contained three sets of six color-adjusted versions of the standard Ishihara color plates each, as well as one set of six control plates. The plates that best discriminated both participant groups were selected for a “balanced” test emphasizing both sensitivity and specificity. A “specific” test that prioritized high specificity was also created by selecting from these plates. Statistical measures of the test (sensitivity, specificity, and Youden index) were assessed at each possible cut-off threshold, and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) function with its area under the curve (AUC) charted. Results: The redshift plate set was identified as having the highest difference of means between groups (−58%, CI: −64 to −52%), as well as the widest gap between group modes. Statistical measures of the “balanced” test show an optimal cut-off of at least two incorrectly identified plates to suggest malingering (Youden index: 0.773, sensitivity: 83.3%, specificity: 94.0%, AUC of ROC 0.918). The “specific” test was able to identify color vision deficiency simulators with a specificity of 100% when using a cut-off of at least two incorrectly identified plates (Youden index 0.599, sensitivity 59.9%, specificity 100%, AUC of ROC 0.881). Conclusions: Our proposed test for identifying color vision deficiency malingering demonstrates a high degree of reliability with AUCs of 0.918 and 0.881 for the “balanced” and “specific” tests, respectively. A cut-off threshold of at least two missed plates on the “specific” test was able to identify color vision deficiency simulators with 100% specificity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)613-618
Number of pages6
JournalGraefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Volume255
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2017
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Color blindness
  • Color vision deficiency
  • Diagnostic tests
  • Malingering
  • Pseudo-isochromatic plates
  • Psychophysics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

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