A mass vaccination campaign targeting adults and children to prevent typhoid fever in Hechi; Expanding the use of Vi polysaccharide vaccine in Southeast China: A cluster-randomized trial

Jin Yang, Camilo J. Acosta, Guo Ai Si, Jun Zeng, Cui Yun Li, Dabin Liang, R. Leon Ochiai, Anne Laure Page, M. Carolina Danovaro-Holliday, Jie Zhang, Bao De Zhou, He Zhuang Liao, Ming Liu Wang, Dong Mei Tan, Zhen Zhu Tang, Jian Gong, Jin Kyung Park, Mohammad Ali, Bernard Ivanoff, Gui Chen LiangHong Hui Yang, Tikki Pang, Zhi Yi Xu, Allan Donner, Claudia M. Galindo, Bai Qing Dong, John D. Clemens

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Abstract

Background: One of the goals of this study was to learn the coverage, safety and logistics of a mass vaccination campaign against typhoid fever in children and adults using locally produced typhoid Vi polysaccharide (PS) and group A meningococcal PS vaccines in southern China. Methods: The vaccination campaign targeted 118,588 persons in Hechi, Guangxi Province, aged between 5 to 60 years, in 2003. The study area was divided into 107 geographic clusters, which were randomly allocated to receive one of the single-dose parenteral vaccines. All aspects regarding vaccination logistics, feasibility and safety were documented and systematically recorded. Results of the logistics, feasibility and safety are reported. Results: The campaign lasted 5 weeks and the overall vaccination coverage was 78%. On average, the 30 vaccine teams gave immunizations on 23 days. Vaccine rates were higher in those aged ≤ 15 years (90%) than in adolescents and young adults (70%). Planned mop-up activities increased the coverage by 17%. The overall vaccine wastage was 11%. The cold chain was maintained and documented. 66 individuals reported of adverse events out of all vaccinees, where fever (21%), malaise (19%) and local redness (19%) were the major symptoms; no life-threatening event occurred. Three needle-sharp events were reported. Conclusion: The mass immunization proved feasible and safe, and vaccine coverage was high. Emphasis should be placed on: injection safety measures, community involvement and incorporation of mop-up strategies into any vaccination campaign. School-based and all-age Vi mass immunizations programs are potentially important public health strategies for prevention of typhoid fever in high-risk populations in southern China.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number49
JournalBMC public health
Volume5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 18 2005

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

Yang, J., Acosta, C. J., Si, G. A., Zeng, J., Li, C. Y., Liang, D., Ochiai, R. L., Page, A. L., Danovaro-Holliday, M. C., Zhang, J., Zhou, B. D., Liao, H. Z., Wang, M. L., Tan, D. M., Tang, Z. Z., Gong, J., Park, J. K., Ali, M., Ivanoff, B., ... Clemens, J. D. (2005). A mass vaccination campaign targeting adults and children to prevent typhoid fever in Hechi; Expanding the use of Vi polysaccharide vaccine in Southeast China: A cluster-randomized trial. BMC public health, 5, [49]. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-5-49