A Liver-Specific Defect of Acyl-CoA Degradation Produces Hyperammonemia, Hypoglycemia and a Distinct Hepatic Acyl-CoA Pattern

Nicolas Gauthier, Jiang Wei Wu, Shu Pei Wang, Pierre Allard, Orval A. Mamer, Lawrence Sweetman, Ann B. Moser, Lisa Kratz, Fernando Alvarez, Yves Robitaille, François Lépine, Grant A. Mitchell

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Abstract

Most conditions detected by expanded newborn screening result from deficiency of one of the enzymes that degrade acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) esters in mitochondria. The role of acyl-CoAs in the pathophysiology of these disorders is poorly understood, in part because CoA esters are intracellular and samples are not generally available from human patients. We created a mouse model of one such condition, deficiency of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase (HL), in liver (HLLKO mice). HL catalyses a reaction of ketone body synthesis and of leucine degradation. Chronic HL deficiency and acute crises each produced distinct abnormal liver acyl-CoA patterns, which would not be predictable from levels of urine organic acids and plasma acylcarnitines. In HLLKO hepatocytes, ketogenesis was undetectable. Carboxylation of [2-14C] pyruvate diminished following incubation of HLLKO hepatocytes with the leucine metabolite 2-ketoisocaproate (KIC). HLLKO mice also had suppression of the normal hyperglycemic response to a systemic pyruvate load, a measure of gluconeogenesis. Hyperammonemia and hypoglycemia, cardinal features of many inborn errors of acyl-CoA metabolism, occurred spontaneously in some HLLKO mice and were inducible by administering KIC. KIC loading also increased levels of several leucine-related acyl-CoAs and reduced acetyl-CoA levels. Ultrastructurally, hepatocyte mitochondria of KIC-treated HLLKO mice show marked swelling. KIC-induced hyperammonemia improved following administration of carglumate (N-carbamyl-L-glutamic acid), which substitutes for the product of an acetyl-CoA-dependent reaction essential for urea cycle function, demonstrating an acyl-CoA-related mechanism for this complication.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere60581
JournalPLoS One
Volume8
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 5 2013

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Gauthier, N., Wu, J. W., Wang, S. P., Allard, P., Mamer, O. A., Sweetman, L., Moser, A. B., Kratz, L., Alvarez, F., Robitaille, Y., Lépine, F., & Mitchell, G. A. (2013). A Liver-Specific Defect of Acyl-CoA Degradation Produces Hyperammonemia, Hypoglycemia and a Distinct Hepatic Acyl-CoA Pattern. PLoS One, 8(7), [e60581]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060581