Background Gallbladder adenomyomatosis (GA) is a benign gallbladder entity discovered as an asymptomatic gallbladder mass. Since gallbladder cancer is in the differential diagnosis for gallbladder masses, the ability to differentiate benign disease avoids a more extensive oncologic resection. This study sought to review imaging modalities used to diagnose GA. Methods PubMed and SciVerse Scopus were systematically searched using the terms: “gallbladder adenomyomatosis” and “gallbladder imaging” for articles published between January 2000 and January 2015. Results A total of 14 articles were reviewed in this analysis. Contemporary series report the use of ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in GA imaging. Ultrasound detection of Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses, visualized as small cystic spaces with associated “comet-tail” or “twinkling” artifact, is pathognomonic for GA. A “Pearl-Necklace” sign of small connected sinuses on MRI or “Rosary” sign on CT are additional characteristics that may assist in establishing a diagnosis. Conclusion Ultrasound is the most commonly used tool to investigate GA. If not diagnostic, CT or MRI are effective in attempting to differentiate a benign or malignant cholecystic mass. Characteristic signs should lead the surgeon to perform a laparoscopic cholecystectomy in symptomatic patients or manage non-operatively in asymptomatic patients.
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