A lipolytic lecithin: Cholesterol acyltransferase secreted by toxoplasma facilitates parasite replication and egress

Viviana Pszenny, Karen Ehrenman, Julia Debra Romano, Andrea Kennard, Aric Schultz, David S. Roos, Michael E. Grigg, Vern B. Carruthers, Isabelle Coppens

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii develops within a parasitophorous vacuole (PV) in mammalian cells, where it scavenges cholesterol. When cholesterol is present in excess in its environment, the parasite expulses this lipid into the PV or esterifies it for storage in lipid bodies. Here, we characterized a unique T. gondii homologue of mammalian lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), a key enzyme that produces cholesteryl esters via transfer of acyl groups from phospholipids to the 3-OH of free cholesterol, leading to the removal of excess cholesterol from tissues. TgLCAT contains a motif characteristic of serine lipases "AHSLG" and the catalytic triad consisting of serine, aspartate, and histidine (SDH) from LCAT enzymes. TgLCATis secreted by the parasite, but unlike other LCAT enzymes it is cleaved into two proteolytic fragments that share the residues of the catalytic triad and need to be reassembled to reconstitute enzymatic activity. TgLCAT uses phosphatidylcholine as substrate to form lysophosphatidylcholine that has the potential to disrupt membranes. The released fatty acid is transferred to cholesterol, but with a lower transesterification activity than mammalian LCAT. TgLCAT is stored in a subpopulation of dense granule secretory organelles, and following secretion, it localizes to the PV and parasite plasma membrane. LCAT-null parasites have impaired growth in vitro, reduced virulence in animals, and exhibit delays in egress from host cells. Parasites overexpressing LCAT show increased virulence and faster egress. These observations demonstrate that TgLCAT influences the outcome of an infection, presumably by facilitating replication and egress depending on the developmental stage of the parasite.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3725-3746
Number of pages22
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Volume291
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 19 2016

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology
  • Molecular Biology

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