A large animal model of bladder exstrophy: Observations of bladder smooth muscle and collagen content

Bruce L. Slaughenhoupt, Ranjiv I. Mathews, Dennis S. Peppas, John Phillip Gearhart

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Purpose: The development of adequate bladder capacity is not ensured in all patients with bladder exstrophy despite successful bladder closure and reconstruction. To determine the factors leading to the development and maturation of the exstrophic bladder we created a large animal model of exstrophy. We compared biopsies obtained from a cohort of experimentally induced exstrophic neonatal sheep bladders to those of normal control bladders and related the findings to a previously reported comparison of human neonatal normal and exstrophic bladders. Materials and Methods: Bladder specimens of 7 newborn lambs with experimentally induced exstrophy were compared to specimens of 10 newborn control lamb bladders. All specimens were stained with Masson's trichrome as well as with specific monoclonal antibodies to types I and III collagen. Stained sections were then analyzed using a morphometric image analysis system to quantify the amounts of smooth muscle and collagen present. Results: A significant increase in the ratio of collagen-to-smooth muscle was noted in exstrophic versus normal control bladders (p

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2119-2122
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Urology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1999
Externally publishedYes



  • Bladder
  • Bladder exstrophy
  • Collagen
  • Sheep

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology

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