A histopathologic study of retinal lesions inflicted by transscleral iontophoresis

Tim T. Lam, Jun Fu, Mark O.M. Tso

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In the present study, retinal lesions were induced by transscleral iontophoresis (1.5 mA) in rabbits. The size and severity of the lesions increased with the duration of application (2-25 min). No lesion was noted after <1 min application. Immediately after 5 min iontophoresis, the edematous retina exhibited necrotic retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), loss of outer segments, and thinning of the inner and outer nuclear layers. At 5 days after iontophoresis, there was a proliferation of RPE cells and macrophages in the subretinal space, with thinning of the inner and outer retinal layers continuing. By day 14, the retina had been reduced to a glial membrane. Immediately after 15 min iontophoresis, the damaged retina appeared in a mummified form containing no cellular elements. By day 5 thereafter, macrophages and actively proliferating RPE cells had been noted in the necrotic retina. By day 14, a glial membrane had formed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)389-394
Number of pages6
JournalGraefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 1991
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience


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