A framework program for the teaching of alternative methods (replacement, reduction, refinement) to animal experimentation

Mardas Daneshian, Mohammad A. Akbarsha, Bas Blaauboer, Francesca Caloni, Pierre Cosson, Rodger Curren, Alan Goldberg, Franz Gruber, Frauke Ohl, Walter Pfaller, Jan Van Der Valk, Pilar Vinardell, Joanne Zurlo, Thomas Hartung, Marcel Leist

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations


Development of improved communication and education strategies is important to make alternatives to the use of animals, and the broad range of applications of the 3Rs concept better known and understood by different audiences. For this purpose, the Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing in Europe (CAAT-Europe) together with the Transatlantic Think Tank for Toxicology (t4) hosted a three-day workshop on "Teaching Alternative Methods to Animal Experimentation". A compilation of the recommendations by a group of international specialists in the field is summarized in this report. Initially, the workshop participants identified the different audience groups to be addressed and also the communication media that may be used. The main outcome of the workshop was a framework for a comprehensive educational program. The modular structure of the teaching program presented here allows adaptation to different audiences with their specific needs; different time schedules can be easily accommodated on this basis. The topics cover the 3Rs principle, basic research, toxicological applications, method development and validation, regulatory aspects, case studies and ethical aspects of 3Rs approaches. This expert consortium agreed to generating teaching materials covering all modules and providing them in an open access online repository.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)341-352
Number of pages12
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2011


  • 3Rs
  • Education
  • Teaching
  • Toxicology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Medical Laboratory Technology


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