The first exon of the human thyrotropin-β (hTSHβ) gene has been demonstrated in our laboratory to contain a major thyroid hormone inhibitory element. In order to characterize fully this element, we have performed a detailed functional and structural scanning mutational analysis of this element. Various -1192 to +37 (base pairs) bp fragments of the hTSHβ gene containing consecutive five deoxythymidine substitution mutations of the first exon were inserted into a luciferase reporter plasmid and transiently transfected into human embryonal cells (293) and stably transfected into rat pituitary cells (GH3). Two domains (domain 1 and 2) were identified by scanning mutations that were essential for function of the thyroid hormone inhibitory element: +3 to +13 bp and +28 to +37 bp. Biotinylated DNA fragments containing -12 to +43 bp of the hTSHβ gene and the identical scanning mutations demonstrate that in vitro synthesized c-erbA-β binding is disrupted as much as 95% by mutations from -3 to +17 bp and to a lesser extent (20-30%) by mutations from +23 to +27 bp and from +33 to +43 bp. Domain 1 displayed a higher affinity for c-erbA-β than domain 2 in avidin-biotin complex DNA-binding and gel-mobility assays. Using increasing amounts of in vitro synthesized c-erbA-β, we were unable to demonstrate more than one protein-DNA complex in gel-mobility assays. However, using the avidin-biotin complex DNA-binding assay and the cross-linking reagent, 1,6-bismaleimidohexane, we were able to demonstrate thyroid hormone receptor dimer formation on domain 1 but not to any significant extent on domain 2. In conclusion, functional and DNA-binding studies suggest that the thyroid hormone receptor binds to two distinct regions in the first exon of the hTSHβ gene. The upstream site (domain 1) binds c-erbA-β with higher affinity and is capable of binding c-erbA-β as a dimer under some conditions, while the downstream site (domain 2) appears to bind a single molecule of c-erbA-β with lower affinity. These results suggest that thyroid hormone receptor, binding to at least two sites in the first exon, act in conjunction to mediate T3 inhibition of hTSHβ expression.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Journal of Biological Chemistry|
|State||Published - Jan 1 1991|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology