A derivative of a rigid glutamate analog protects the retina from excitotoxicity

Renata Siliprandi, Maria Lipartiti, Emanuela Fadda, Roberto Arban, Alan P. Kozikowski, Hari Manev

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In the retina, the activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) reduces the toxic effect of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). We have induced NMDA-mediated excitotoxicity in the adult rat retina by a single intraocular injection of NMDA. The damage that resulted was estimated by assessing the NMDA-induced loss of retinal choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity. The new rigid glutamate analog, dimethyl ester of (+/-)-trans-azetidine-2, 4-dicarboxylic acid (t-DMADA), with a putative mGluR-agonistic activity, protected the retina from NMDA-induced loss of ChAT activity. This study demonstrated that t-DMADA can be considered a prototype of new retino-protective agents.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1227-1229
Number of pages3
Issue number10
StatePublished - Jun 1994
Externally publishedYes


  • Azetidine
  • Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)
  • Excitotoxicity
  • Metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)
  • N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)
  • Neuroprotection
  • Retina

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)


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