A controlled trial of reduced meal frequency without caloric restriction in healthy, normal-weight, middle-aged adults

Kim S. Stote, David J. Baer, Karen Spears, David R. Paul, G. Keith Harris, William V. Rumpler, Pilar Strycula, Samer S. Najjar, Luigi Ferrucci, Donald K. Ingram, Dan L. Longo, Mark P. Mattson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Although consumption of 3 meals/d is the most common pattern of eating in industrialized countries, a scientific rationale for this meal frequency with respect to optimal health is lacking. A diet with less meal frequency can improve the health and extend the lifespan of laboratory animals, but its effect on humans has never been tested. Objective: A pilot study was conducted to establish the effects of a reduced-meal-frequency diet on health indicators in healthy, normal-weight adults. Design: The study was a randomized crossover design with two 8-wk treatment periods. During the treatment periods, subjects consumed all of the calories needed for weight maintenance in either 3 meals/d or 1 meal/d. Results: Subjects who completed the study maintained their body weight within 2 kg of their initial weight throughout the 6-mo period. There were no significant effects of meal frequency on heart rate, body temperature, or most of the blood variables measured. However, when consuming 1 meal/d, subjects had a significant increase in hunger; a significant modification of body composition, including reductions in fat mass; significant increases in blood pressure and in total, LDL-, and HDL-cholesterol concentrations; and a significant decrease in concentrations of cortisol. Conclusions: Normal-weight subjects are able to comply with a 1 meal/d diet. When meal frequency is decreased without a reduction in overall calorie intake, modest changes occur in body composition, some cardiovascular disease risk factors, and hematologic variables. Diurnal variations may affect outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)981-988
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume85
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 2007
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

middle-aged adults
Caloric Restriction
meals (menu)
Meals
Weights and Measures
Diet
Body Composition
body composition
Health
diet
Hunger
Laboratory Animals
hunger
weight control
diurnal variation
Body Temperature
low density lipoprotein cholesterol
eating habits
Developed Countries
high density lipoprotein cholesterol

Keywords

  • Blood pressure
  • Caloric restriction
  • Cholesterol metabolism
  • Controlled diet
  • Intermittent fasting
  • Meal frequency
  • Normal-weight adults

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Food Science

Cite this

Stote, K. S., Baer, D. J., Spears, K., Paul, D. R., Harris, G. K., Rumpler, W. V., ... Mattson, M. P. (2007). A controlled trial of reduced meal frequency without caloric restriction in healthy, normal-weight, middle-aged adults. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 85(4), 981-988.

A controlled trial of reduced meal frequency without caloric restriction in healthy, normal-weight, middle-aged adults. / Stote, Kim S.; Baer, David J.; Spears, Karen; Paul, David R.; Harris, G. Keith; Rumpler, William V.; Strycula, Pilar; Najjar, Samer S.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Ingram, Donald K.; Longo, Dan L.; Mattson, Mark P.

In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 85, No. 4, 01.04.2007, p. 981-988.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Stote, KS, Baer, DJ, Spears, K, Paul, DR, Harris, GK, Rumpler, WV, Strycula, P, Najjar, SS, Ferrucci, L, Ingram, DK, Longo, DL & Mattson, MP 2007, 'A controlled trial of reduced meal frequency without caloric restriction in healthy, normal-weight, middle-aged adults', American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 85, no. 4, pp. 981-988.
Stote, Kim S. ; Baer, David J. ; Spears, Karen ; Paul, David R. ; Harris, G. Keith ; Rumpler, William V. ; Strycula, Pilar ; Najjar, Samer S. ; Ferrucci, Luigi ; Ingram, Donald K. ; Longo, Dan L. ; Mattson, Mark P. / A controlled trial of reduced meal frequency without caloric restriction in healthy, normal-weight, middle-aged adults. In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2007 ; Vol. 85, No. 4. pp. 981-988.
@article{4224ae750b994fc8844d37e2cb543c30,
title = "A controlled trial of reduced meal frequency without caloric restriction in healthy, normal-weight, middle-aged adults",
abstract = "Background: Although consumption of 3 meals/d is the most common pattern of eating in industrialized countries, a scientific rationale for this meal frequency with respect to optimal health is lacking. A diet with less meal frequency can improve the health and extend the lifespan of laboratory animals, but its effect on humans has never been tested. Objective: A pilot study was conducted to establish the effects of a reduced-meal-frequency diet on health indicators in healthy, normal-weight adults. Design: The study was a randomized crossover design with two 8-wk treatment periods. During the treatment periods, subjects consumed all of the calories needed for weight maintenance in either 3 meals/d or 1 meal/d. Results: Subjects who completed the study maintained their body weight within 2 kg of their initial weight throughout the 6-mo period. There were no significant effects of meal frequency on heart rate, body temperature, or most of the blood variables measured. However, when consuming 1 meal/d, subjects had a significant increase in hunger; a significant modification of body composition, including reductions in fat mass; significant increases in blood pressure and in total, LDL-, and HDL-cholesterol concentrations; and a significant decrease in concentrations of cortisol. Conclusions: Normal-weight subjects are able to comply with a 1 meal/d diet. When meal frequency is decreased without a reduction in overall calorie intake, modest changes occur in body composition, some cardiovascular disease risk factors, and hematologic variables. Diurnal variations may affect outcomes.",
keywords = "Blood pressure, Caloric restriction, Cholesterol metabolism, Controlled diet, Intermittent fasting, Meal frequency, Normal-weight adults",
author = "Stote, {Kim S.} and Baer, {David J.} and Karen Spears and Paul, {David R.} and Harris, {G. Keith} and Rumpler, {William V.} and Pilar Strycula and Najjar, {Samer S.} and Luigi Ferrucci and Ingram, {Donald K.} and Longo, {Dan L.} and Mattson, {Mark P.}",
year = "2007",
month = "4",
day = "1",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "85",
pages = "981--988",
journal = "American Journal of Clinical Nutrition",
issn = "0002-9165",
publisher = "American Society for Nutrition",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - A controlled trial of reduced meal frequency without caloric restriction in healthy, normal-weight, middle-aged adults

AU - Stote, Kim S.

AU - Baer, David J.

AU - Spears, Karen

AU - Paul, David R.

AU - Harris, G. Keith

AU - Rumpler, William V.

AU - Strycula, Pilar

AU - Najjar, Samer S.

AU - Ferrucci, Luigi

AU - Ingram, Donald K.

AU - Longo, Dan L.

AU - Mattson, Mark P.

PY - 2007/4/1

Y1 - 2007/4/1

N2 - Background: Although consumption of 3 meals/d is the most common pattern of eating in industrialized countries, a scientific rationale for this meal frequency with respect to optimal health is lacking. A diet with less meal frequency can improve the health and extend the lifespan of laboratory animals, but its effect on humans has never been tested. Objective: A pilot study was conducted to establish the effects of a reduced-meal-frequency diet on health indicators in healthy, normal-weight adults. Design: The study was a randomized crossover design with two 8-wk treatment periods. During the treatment periods, subjects consumed all of the calories needed for weight maintenance in either 3 meals/d or 1 meal/d. Results: Subjects who completed the study maintained their body weight within 2 kg of their initial weight throughout the 6-mo period. There were no significant effects of meal frequency on heart rate, body temperature, or most of the blood variables measured. However, when consuming 1 meal/d, subjects had a significant increase in hunger; a significant modification of body composition, including reductions in fat mass; significant increases in blood pressure and in total, LDL-, and HDL-cholesterol concentrations; and a significant decrease in concentrations of cortisol. Conclusions: Normal-weight subjects are able to comply with a 1 meal/d diet. When meal frequency is decreased without a reduction in overall calorie intake, modest changes occur in body composition, some cardiovascular disease risk factors, and hematologic variables. Diurnal variations may affect outcomes.

AB - Background: Although consumption of 3 meals/d is the most common pattern of eating in industrialized countries, a scientific rationale for this meal frequency with respect to optimal health is lacking. A diet with less meal frequency can improve the health and extend the lifespan of laboratory animals, but its effect on humans has never been tested. Objective: A pilot study was conducted to establish the effects of a reduced-meal-frequency diet on health indicators in healthy, normal-weight adults. Design: The study was a randomized crossover design with two 8-wk treatment periods. During the treatment periods, subjects consumed all of the calories needed for weight maintenance in either 3 meals/d or 1 meal/d. Results: Subjects who completed the study maintained their body weight within 2 kg of their initial weight throughout the 6-mo period. There were no significant effects of meal frequency on heart rate, body temperature, or most of the blood variables measured. However, when consuming 1 meal/d, subjects had a significant increase in hunger; a significant modification of body composition, including reductions in fat mass; significant increases in blood pressure and in total, LDL-, and HDL-cholesterol concentrations; and a significant decrease in concentrations of cortisol. Conclusions: Normal-weight subjects are able to comply with a 1 meal/d diet. When meal frequency is decreased without a reduction in overall calorie intake, modest changes occur in body composition, some cardiovascular disease risk factors, and hematologic variables. Diurnal variations may affect outcomes.

KW - Blood pressure

KW - Caloric restriction

KW - Cholesterol metabolism

KW - Controlled diet

KW - Intermittent fasting

KW - Meal frequency

KW - Normal-weight adults

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=34147154023&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=34147154023&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

C2 - 17413096

AN - SCOPUS:34147154023

VL - 85

SP - 981

EP - 988

JO - American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

JF - American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

SN - 0002-9165

IS - 4

ER -