A comparison of reinforcement schedules to increase independent responding in individuals with intellectual disabilities

Nicole L. Hausman, Einar T. Ingvarsson, Sungwoo Kahng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


We compared the effects of varying reinforcement schedules on independent responding with 3 individuals with intellectual disabilities. Independent responding was always reinforced, and responding after a vocal response was either (a) always reinforced, (b) never reinforced, or (c) reinforced on a fixed-ratio 3 schedule. Results showed that for 2 of the 3 participants, independent responding was higher when responding after the vocal prompt was never reinforced. These data suggest that altering the reinforcement schedule to favor independent responding may lead to increased independent responding.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)155-159
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of applied behavior analysis
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 1 2014



  • differential reinforcement
  • intellectual disabilities
  • prompt dependence
  • skill acquisition

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Philosophy
  • Applied Psychology
  • Sociology and Political Science

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