Screening for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) is important to improve clinical outcomes. We compared the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the mini-mental state examination, International HIV dementia scale (IHDS), Montreal cognitive assessment, Simioni symptom questionnaire and cognitive assessment tool-rapid version (CAT-rapid) to a gold standard neuropsychological battery. Antiretroviral-experienced participants from Cape Town, South Africa, and Baltimore, USA, were recruited. The sensitivity and specificity of the five tools, as well as those of the combined IHDS and CAT-rapid, were established using 2 × 2 contingency tables and ROC analysis. More than a third (65165) had symptomatic HAND. In detecting HIV-D, the CAT-Rapid had good sensitivity (94 %) and weak specificity (52 %) (cut-point ≤10), while the IHDS showed fair sensitivity (68 %) and good specificity (86 %) (cut-point ≤10). The combined IHDS and CAT-rapid showed excellent sensitivity and specificity for HIV-D at a cut-off score of ≤16 (out of 20; 89 and 82 %). No tool was adequate in screening for any HAND. The combination IHDS and CAT-rapid tool appears to be a good screener for HIV-D but is only fairly sensitive and poorly specific in screening for any HAND. Screening for milder forms of HAND continues to be a clinical challenge.
- HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Social Psychology
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Infectious Diseases