A common biological basis of obesity and nicotine addiction

T. E. Thorgeirsson, D. F. Gudbjartsson, P. Sulem, S. Besenbacher, U. Styrkarsdottir, G. Thorleifsson, G. B. Walters, H. Furberg, P. F. Sullivan, J. Marchini, M. I. McCarthy, V. Steinthorsdottir, U. Thorsteinsdottir, K. Stefansson, Ida Surakka, Jacqueline M. Vink, Najaf Amin, Frank Geller, Thorunn Rafnar, Toñu Esko & 258 others Stefan Walter, Christian Gieger, Rajesh Rawal, Massimo Mangino, Inga Prokopenko, Reedik Mägi, Kaisu Keskitalo, Iris H. Gudjonsdottir, Solveig Gretarsdottir, Hreinn Stefansson, Yurii S. Aulchenko, Mari Nelis, Katja K. Aben, Martin Den Heijer, Nicole Soranzo, Ana M. Valdes, Claire Steves, André G. Uitterlinden, Albert Hofman, Anke Tönjes, Peter Kovacs, Jouke Jan Hottenga, Gonneke Willemsen, Nicole Vogelzangs, Angela Döring, Norbert Dahmen, Barbara Nitz, Samuli Ripatti, Markus Perola, Johannes Kettunen, Anna Liisa Hartikainen, Anneli Pouta, Jaana Laitinen, Matti Isohanni, Shen Huei-Yi, Maxine Allen, Maria Krestyaninova, Alistair S. Hall, John R. Thompson, Hogni Oskarsson, Thorarinn Tyrfingsson, Lambertus A. Kiemeney, Marjo Riitta Järvelin, Veikko Salomaa, Michael Stumvoll, Tim D. Spector, H. Erich Wichmann, Andres Metspalu, Nilesh J. Samani, Brenda W. Penninx, Ben A. Oostra, Dorret I. Boomsma, Henning Tiemeier, Cornelia M. Van Duijn, Jaakko Kaprio, Jeffrey R. Gulcher, Yun Jung Kim, Jennifer Dackor, Eric Boerwinkle, Nora Franceschini, Diego Ardissino, Luisa Bernardinelli, Pier M. Mannucci, Francesco Mauri, Piera A. Merlini, Devin Absher, Themistocles L. Assimes, Stephen P. Fortmann, Carlos Iribarren, Joshua W. Knowles, Thomas Quertermous, Luigi Ferrucci, Toshiko Tanaka, Joshua C. Bis, Curt D. Furberg, Talin Haritunians, Barbara McKnight, Bruce M. Psaty, Kent D. Taylor, Evan L. Thacker, Peter Almgren, Leif Groop, Claes Ladenvall, Michael Boehnke, Anne U. Jackson, Karen L. Mohlke, Heather M. Stringham, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Emelia J. Benjamin, Shih Jen Hwang, Daniel Levy, Sarah Rosner Preis, Ramachandran S. Vasan, Jubao Duan, Pablo V. Gejman, Douglas F. Levinson, Alan R. Sanders, Jianxin Shi, Esther H. Lips, James D. McKay, Antonio Agudo, Luigi Barzan, Vladimir Bencko, Simone Benhamou, Xavier Castellsagué, Cristina Canova, David I. Conway, Eleonora Fabianova, Lenka Foretova, Vladimir Janout, Claire M. Healy, Ivana Holcátová, Kristina Kjaerheim, Pagona Lagiou, Jolanta Lissowska, Ray Lowry, Tatiana V. Macfarlane, Dana Mates, Lorenzo Richiardi, Peter Rudnai, Neonilia Szeszenia-Dabrowska, David Zaridze, Ariana Znaor, Mark Lathrop, Paul Brennan, Stefania Bandinelli, Timothy M. Frayling, Jack M. Guralnik, Yuri Milaneschi, John R B Perry, David Altshuler, Roberto Elosua, Sek Kathiresan, Gavin Lucas, Olle Melander, Christopher J. O'Donnell, Stephen M. Schwartz, Benjamin F. Voight, Johannes H. Smit, Eco J C De Geus, Stephen J. Chanock, Fangyi Gu, Susan E. Hankinson, David J. Hunter, Daniel I. Chasman, Brendan M. Everett, Guillaume Paré, Paul M. Ridker, Ming D. Li, Hermine H. Maes, Janet Audrain-McGovern, Danielle Posthuma, Laura M. Thornton, Caryn Lerman, Jed E. Rose, John P A Ioannidis, Peter Kraft, Dan Yu Lin, Jason S. Liu, Federica Tozzi, Dawn M. Waterworth, Sreekumar G. Pillai, Pierandrea Muglia, Lefkos Middleton, Wade Berrettini, Christopher W. Knouff, Xin Yuan, Gérard Waeber, Peter Vollenweider, Martin Preisig, Nicholas J. Wareham, Jing Hua Zhao, Ruth J F Loos, Inês Barroso, Kay Tee Khaw, Scott Grundy, Philip Barter, Robert Mahley, Antero Kesaniemi, Ruth McPherson, John Vincent, John Strauss, James Kennedy, Anne Farmer, Peter McGuffin, Richard Day, Keith Matthews, Per Bakke, Amund Gulsvik, Susanne Lucae, Marcus Ising, Tanja Brueckl, Sonja Horstmann, Joachim Heinrich, Claudia Lamina, Ozren Polasek, Lina Zgaga, Jennifer Huffman, Susan Campbell, Jaspal Kooner, John C. Chambers, Mary Susan Burnett, Joe Devaney, Augusto D. Pichard, Kenneth M. Kent, Lowell Satler, Joseph M. Lindsay, Ron Waksman, Stephen Epstein, Jim F. Wilson, Sarah H. Wild, Harry Campbell, Veronique Vitart, Muredach P. Reilly, Mingyao Li, Liming Qu, Robert Wilensky, William Matthai, Hakon H. Hakonarson, Daniel J. Rader, Andre Franke, Michael Wittig, Arne Schäfer, Manuela Uda, Antonio Terracciano, Xiangjun Xiao, Fabio Busonero, Paul Scheet, David Schlessinger, David St Clair, Dan Rujescu, Gonçalo R. Abecasis, Hans Jörgen Grabe, Alexander Teumer, Henry Völzke, Astrid Petersmann, Ulrich John, Igor Rudan, Caroline Hayward, Alan F. Wright, Ivana Kolcic, Benjamin J. Wright, Anthony J. Balmforth, Carl A. Anderson, Tariq Ahmed, Christopher G. Mathew, Miles Parkes, Jack Satsangi, Mark Caulfield, Patricia B. Munroe, Martin Farrall, Anna Dominiczak, Jane Worthington, Wendy Thomson, Steve Eyre, Anne Barton, Vincent Mooser, Clyde Francks

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Smoking influences body weight such that smokers weigh less than non-smokers and smoking cessation often leads to weight increase. The relationship between body weight and smoking is partly explained by the effect of nicotine on appetite and metabolism. However, the brain reward system is involved in the control of the intake of both food and tobacco. We evaluated the effect of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affecting body mass index (BMI) on smoking behavior, and tested the 32 SNPs identified in a meta-analysis for association with two smoking phenotypes, smoking initiation (SI) and the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) in an Icelandic sample (N=34 216 smokers). Combined according to their effect on BMI, the SNPs correlate with both SI (r=0.019, P=0.00054) and CPD (r=0.032, P=8.0 × 10-7). These findings replicate in a second large data set (N=127 274, thereof 76 242 smokers) for both SI (P=1.2 × 10-5) and CPD (P=9.3 × 10-5). Notably, the variant most strongly associated with BMI (rs1558902-A in FTO) did not associate with smoking behavior. The association with smoking behavior is not due to the effect of the SNPs on BMI. Our results strongly point to a common biological basis of the regulation of our appetite for tobacco and food, and thus the vulnerability to nicotine addiction and obesity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere308
Pages (from-to)1-7
Number of pages7
JournalTranslational Psychiatry
Volume3
DOIs
StatePublished - 2013
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Nicotine
Obesity
Smoking
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
Body Mass Index
Tobacco Products
Tobacco
Body Weight
Appetite Regulation
Appetite
Smoking Cessation
Reward
Meta-Analysis
Eating
Phenotype
Weights and Measures
Food
Brain

Keywords

  • Addiction
  • body mass index
  • nicotine dependence
  • obesity
  • smoking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

Cite this

Thorgeirsson, T. E., Gudbjartsson, D. F., Sulem, P., Besenbacher, S., Styrkarsdottir, U., Thorleifsson, G., ... Francks, C. (2013). A common biological basis of obesity and nicotine addiction. Translational Psychiatry, 3, 1-7. [e308]. https://doi.org/10.1038/tp.2013.81

A common biological basis of obesity and nicotine addiction. / Thorgeirsson, T. E.; Gudbjartsson, D. F.; Sulem, P.; Besenbacher, S.; Styrkarsdottir, U.; Thorleifsson, G.; Walters, G. B.; Furberg, H.; Sullivan, P. F.; Marchini, J.; McCarthy, M. I.; Steinthorsdottir, V.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Stefansson, K.; Surakka, Ida; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Amin, Najaf; Geller, Frank; Rafnar, Thorunn; Esko, Toñu; Walter, Stefan; Gieger, Christian; Rawal, Rajesh; Mangino, Massimo; Prokopenko, Inga; Mägi, Reedik; Keskitalo, Kaisu; Gudjonsdottir, Iris H.; Gretarsdottir, Solveig; Stefansson, Hreinn; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Nelis, Mari; Aben, Katja K.; Den Heijer, Martin; Soranzo, Nicole; Valdes, Ana M.; Steves, Claire; Uitterlinden, André G.; Hofman, Albert; Tönjes, Anke; Kovacs, Peter; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Willemsen, Gonneke; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Döring, Angela; Dahmen, Norbert; Nitz, Barbara; Ripatti, Samuli; Perola, Markus; Kettunen, Johannes; Hartikainen, Anna Liisa; Pouta, Anneli; Laitinen, Jaana; Isohanni, Matti; Huei-Yi, Shen; Allen, Maxine; Krestyaninova, Maria; Hall, Alistair S.; Thompson, John R.; Oskarsson, Hogni; Tyrfingsson, Thorarinn; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Järvelin, Marjo Riitta; Salomaa, Veikko; Stumvoll, Michael; Spector, Tim D.; Wichmann, H. Erich; Metspalu, Andres; Samani, Nilesh J.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Oostra, Ben A.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Tiemeier, Henning; Van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Gulcher, Jeffrey R.; Kim, Yun Jung; Dackor, Jennifer; Boerwinkle, Eric; Franceschini, Nora; Ardissino, Diego; Bernardinelli, Luisa; Mannucci, Pier M.; Mauri, Francesco; Merlini, Piera A.; Absher, Devin; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Fortmann, Stephen P.; Iribarren, Carlos; Knowles, Joshua W.; Quertermous, Thomas; Ferrucci, Luigi; Tanaka, Toshiko; Bis, Joshua C.; Furberg, Curt D.; Haritunians, Talin; McKnight, Barbara; Psaty, Bruce M.; Taylor, Kent D.; Thacker, Evan L.; Almgren, Peter; Groop, Leif; Ladenvall, Claes; Boehnke, Michael; Jackson, Anne U.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Stringham, Heather M.; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Hwang, Shih Jen; Levy, Daniel; Preis, Sarah Rosner; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Duan, Jubao; Gejman, Pablo V.; Levinson, Douglas F.; Sanders, Alan R.; Shi, Jianxin; Lips, Esther H.; McKay, James D.; Agudo, Antonio; Barzan, Luigi; Bencko, Vladimir; Benhamou, Simone; Castellsagué, Xavier; Canova, Cristina; Conway, David I.; Fabianova, Eleonora; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Healy, Claire M.; Holcátová, Ivana; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Lagiou, Pagona; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lowry, Ray; Macfarlane, Tatiana V.; Mates, Dana; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Rudnai, Peter; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia; Zaridze, David; Znaor, Ariana; Lathrop, Mark; Brennan, Paul; Bandinelli, Stefania; Frayling, Timothy M.; Guralnik, Jack M.; Milaneschi, Yuri; Perry, John R B; Altshuler, David; Elosua, Roberto; Kathiresan, Sek; Lucas, Gavin; Melander, Olle; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Voight, Benjamin F.; Smit, Johannes H.; De Geus, Eco J C; Chanock, Stephen J.; Gu, Fangyi; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hunter, David J.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Everett, Brendan M.; Paré, Guillaume; Ridker, Paul M.; Li, Ming D.; Maes, Hermine H.; Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Posthuma, Danielle; Thornton, Laura M.; Lerman, Caryn; Rose, Jed E.; Ioannidis, John P A; Kraft, Peter; Lin, Dan Yu; Liu, Jason S.; Tozzi, Federica; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Pillai, Sreekumar G.; Muglia, Pierandrea; Middleton, Lefkos; Berrettini, Wade; Knouff, Christopher W.; Yuan, Xin; Waeber, Gérard; Vollenweider, Peter; Preisig, Martin; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Loos, Ruth J F; Barroso, Inês; Khaw, Kay Tee; Grundy, Scott; Barter, Philip; Mahley, Robert; Kesaniemi, Antero; McPherson, Ruth; Vincent, John; Strauss, John; Kennedy, James; Farmer, Anne; McGuffin, Peter; Day, Richard; Matthews, Keith; Bakke, Per; Gulsvik, Amund; Lucae, Susanne; Ising, Marcus; Brueckl, Tanja; Horstmann, Sonja; Heinrich, Joachim; Lamina, Claudia; Polasek, Ozren; Zgaga, Lina; Huffman, Jennifer; Campbell, Susan; Kooner, Jaspal; Chambers, John C.; Burnett, Mary Susan; Devaney, Joe; Pichard, Augusto D.; Kent, Kenneth M.; Satler, Lowell; Lindsay, Joseph M.; Waksman, Ron; Epstein, Stephen; Wilson, Jim F.; Wild, Sarah H.; Campbell, Harry; Vitart, Veronique; Reilly, Muredach P.; Li, Mingyao; Qu, Liming; Wilensky, Robert; Matthai, William; Hakonarson, Hakon H.; Rader, Daniel J.; Franke, Andre; Wittig, Michael; Schäfer, Arne; Uda, Manuela; Terracciano, Antonio; Xiao, Xiangjun; Busonero, Fabio; Scheet, Paul; Schlessinger, David; Clair, David St; Rujescu, Dan; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Teumer, Alexander; Völzke, Henry; Petersmann, Astrid; John, Ulrich; Rudan, Igor; Hayward, Caroline; Wright, Alan F.; Kolcic, Ivana; Wright, Benjamin J.; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Anderson, Carl A.; Ahmed, Tariq; Mathew, Christopher G.; Parkes, Miles; Satsangi, Jack; Caulfield, Mark; Munroe, Patricia B.; Farrall, Martin; Dominiczak, Anna; Worthington, Jane; Thomson, Wendy; Eyre, Steve; Barton, Anne; Mooser, Vincent; Francks, Clyde.

In: Translational Psychiatry, Vol. 3, e308, 2013, p. 1-7.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Thorgeirsson, TE, Gudbjartsson, DF, Sulem, P, Besenbacher, S, Styrkarsdottir, U, Thorleifsson, G, Walters, GB, Furberg, H, Sullivan, PF, Marchini, J, McCarthy, MI, Steinthorsdottir, V, Thorsteinsdottir, U, Stefansson, K, Surakka, I, Vink, JM, Amin, N, Geller, F, Rafnar, T, Esko, T, Walter, S, Gieger, C, Rawal, R, Mangino, M, Prokopenko, I, Mägi, R, Keskitalo, K, Gudjonsdottir, IH, Gretarsdottir, S, Stefansson, H, Aulchenko, YS, Nelis, M, Aben, KK, Den Heijer, M, Soranzo, N, Valdes, AM, Steves, C, Uitterlinden, AG, Hofman, A, Tönjes, A, Kovacs, P, Hottenga, JJ, Willemsen, G, Vogelzangs, N, Döring, A, Dahmen, N, Nitz, B, Ripatti, S, Perola, M, Kettunen, J, Hartikainen, AL, Pouta, A, Laitinen, J, Isohanni, M, Huei-Yi, S, Allen, M, Krestyaninova, M, Hall, AS, Thompson, JR, Oskarsson, H, Tyrfingsson, T, Kiemeney, LA, Järvelin, MR, Salomaa, V, Stumvoll, M, Spector, TD, Wichmann, HE, Metspalu, A, Samani, NJ, Penninx, BW, Oostra, BA, Boomsma, DI, Tiemeier, H, Van Duijn, CM, Kaprio, J, Gulcher, JR, Kim, YJ, Dackor, J, Boerwinkle, E, Franceschini, N, Ardissino, D, Bernardinelli, L, Mannucci, PM, Mauri, F, Merlini, PA, Absher, D, Assimes, TL, Fortmann, SP, Iribarren, C, Knowles, JW, Quertermous, T, Ferrucci, L, Tanaka, T, Bis, JC, Furberg, CD, Haritunians, T, McKnight, B, Psaty, BM, Taylor, KD, Thacker, EL, Almgren, P, Groop, L, Ladenvall, C, Boehnke, M, Jackson, AU, Mohlke, KL, Stringham, HM, Tuomilehto, J, Benjamin, EJ, Hwang, SJ, Levy, D, Preis, SR, Vasan, RS, Duan, J, Gejman, PV, Levinson, DF, Sanders, AR, Shi, J, Lips, EH, McKay, JD, Agudo, A, Barzan, L, Bencko, V, Benhamou, S, Castellsagué, X, Canova, C, Conway, DI, Fabianova, E, Foretova, L, Janout, V, Healy, CM, Holcátová, I, Kjaerheim, K, Lagiou, P, Lissowska, J, Lowry, R, Macfarlane, TV, Mates, D, Richiardi, L, Rudnai, P, Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N, Zaridze, D, Znaor, A, Lathrop, M, Brennan, P, Bandinelli, S, Frayling, TM, Guralnik, JM, Milaneschi, Y, Perry, JRB, Altshuler, D, Elosua, R, Kathiresan, S, Lucas, G, Melander, O, O'Donnell, CJ, Schwartz, SM, Voight, BF, Smit, JH, De Geus, EJC, Chanock, SJ, Gu, F, Hankinson, SE, Hunter, DJ, Chasman, DI, Everett, BM, Paré, G, Ridker, PM, Li, MD, Maes, HH, Audrain-McGovern, J, Posthuma, D, Thornton, LM, Lerman, C, Rose, JE, Ioannidis, JPA, Kraft, P, Lin, DY, Liu, JS, Tozzi, F, Waterworth, DM, Pillai, SG, Muglia, P, Middleton, L, Berrettini, W, Knouff, CW, Yuan, X, Waeber, G, Vollenweider, P, Preisig, M, Wareham, NJ, Zhao, JH, Loos, RJF, Barroso, I, Khaw, KT, Grundy, S, Barter, P, Mahley, R, Kesaniemi, A, McPherson, R, Vincent, J, Strauss, J, Kennedy, J, Farmer, A, McGuffin, P, Day, R, Matthews, K, Bakke, P, Gulsvik, A, Lucae, S, Ising, M, Brueckl, T, Horstmann, S, Heinrich, J, Lamina, C, Polasek, O, Zgaga, L, Huffman, J, Campbell, S, Kooner, J, Chambers, JC, Burnett, MS, Devaney, J, Pichard, AD, Kent, KM, Satler, L, Lindsay, JM, Waksman, R, Epstein, S, Wilson, JF, Wild, SH, Campbell, H, Vitart, V, Reilly, MP, Li, M, Qu, L, Wilensky, R, Matthai, W, Hakonarson, HH, Rader, DJ, Franke, A, Wittig, M, Schäfer, A, Uda, M, Terracciano, A, Xiao, X, Busonero, F, Scheet, P, Schlessinger, D, Clair, DS, Rujescu, D, Abecasis, GR, Grabe, HJ, Teumer, A, Völzke, H, Petersmann, A, John, U, Rudan, I, Hayward, C, Wright, AF, Kolcic, I, Wright, BJ, Balmforth, AJ, Anderson, CA, Ahmed, T, Mathew, CG, Parkes, M, Satsangi, J, Caulfield, M, Munroe, PB, Farrall, M, Dominiczak, A, Worthington, J, Thomson, W, Eyre, S, Barton, A, Mooser, V & Francks, C 2013, 'A common biological basis of obesity and nicotine addiction', Translational Psychiatry, vol. 3, e308, pp. 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1038/tp.2013.81
Thorgeirsson TE, Gudbjartsson DF, Sulem P, Besenbacher S, Styrkarsdottir U, Thorleifsson G et al. A common biological basis of obesity and nicotine addiction. Translational Psychiatry. 2013;3:1-7. e308. https://doi.org/10.1038/tp.2013.81
Thorgeirsson, T. E. ; Gudbjartsson, D. F. ; Sulem, P. ; Besenbacher, S. ; Styrkarsdottir, U. ; Thorleifsson, G. ; Walters, G. B. ; Furberg, H. ; Sullivan, P. F. ; Marchini, J. ; McCarthy, M. I. ; Steinthorsdottir, V. ; Thorsteinsdottir, U. ; Stefansson, K. ; Surakka, Ida ; Vink, Jacqueline M. ; Amin, Najaf ; Geller, Frank ; Rafnar, Thorunn ; Esko, Toñu ; Walter, Stefan ; Gieger, Christian ; Rawal, Rajesh ; Mangino, Massimo ; Prokopenko, Inga ; Mägi, Reedik ; Keskitalo, Kaisu ; Gudjonsdottir, Iris H. ; Gretarsdottir, Solveig ; Stefansson, Hreinn ; Aulchenko, Yurii S. ; Nelis, Mari ; Aben, Katja K. ; Den Heijer, Martin ; Soranzo, Nicole ; Valdes, Ana M. ; Steves, Claire ; Uitterlinden, André G. ; Hofman, Albert ; Tönjes, Anke ; Kovacs, Peter ; Hottenga, Jouke Jan ; Willemsen, Gonneke ; Vogelzangs, Nicole ; Döring, Angela ; Dahmen, Norbert ; Nitz, Barbara ; Ripatti, Samuli ; Perola, Markus ; Kettunen, Johannes ; Hartikainen, Anna Liisa ; Pouta, Anneli ; Laitinen, Jaana ; Isohanni, Matti ; Huei-Yi, Shen ; Allen, Maxine ; Krestyaninova, Maria ; Hall, Alistair S. ; Thompson, John R. ; Oskarsson, Hogni ; Tyrfingsson, Thorarinn ; Kiemeney, Lambertus A. ; Järvelin, Marjo Riitta ; Salomaa, Veikko ; Stumvoll, Michael ; Spector, Tim D. ; Wichmann, H. Erich ; Metspalu, Andres ; Samani, Nilesh J. ; Penninx, Brenda W. ; Oostra, Ben A. ; Boomsma, Dorret I. ; Tiemeier, Henning ; Van Duijn, Cornelia M. ; Kaprio, Jaakko ; Gulcher, Jeffrey R. ; Kim, Yun Jung ; Dackor, Jennifer ; Boerwinkle, Eric ; Franceschini, Nora ; Ardissino, Diego ; Bernardinelli, Luisa ; Mannucci, Pier M. ; Mauri, Francesco ; Merlini, Piera A. ; Absher, Devin ; Assimes, Themistocles L. ; Fortmann, Stephen P. ; Iribarren, Carlos ; Knowles, Joshua W. ; Quertermous, Thomas ; Ferrucci, Luigi ; Tanaka, Toshiko ; Bis, Joshua C. ; Furberg, Curt D. ; Haritunians, Talin ; McKnight, Barbara ; Psaty, Bruce M. ; Taylor, Kent D. ; Thacker, Evan L. ; Almgren, Peter ; Groop, Leif ; Ladenvall, Claes ; Boehnke, Michael ; Jackson, Anne U. ; Mohlke, Karen L. ; Stringham, Heather M. ; Tuomilehto, Jaakko ; Benjamin, Emelia J. ; Hwang, Shih Jen ; Levy, Daniel ; Preis, Sarah Rosner ; Vasan, Ramachandran S. ; Duan, Jubao ; Gejman, Pablo V. ; Levinson, Douglas F. ; Sanders, Alan R. ; Shi, Jianxin ; Lips, Esther H. ; McKay, James D. ; Agudo, Antonio ; Barzan, Luigi ; Bencko, Vladimir ; Benhamou, Simone ; Castellsagué, Xavier ; Canova, Cristina ; Conway, David I. ; Fabianova, Eleonora ; Foretova, Lenka ; Janout, Vladimir ; Healy, Claire M. ; Holcátová, Ivana ; Kjaerheim, Kristina ; Lagiou, Pagona ; Lissowska, Jolanta ; Lowry, Ray ; Macfarlane, Tatiana V. ; Mates, Dana ; Richiardi, Lorenzo ; Rudnai, Peter ; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia ; Zaridze, David ; Znaor, Ariana ; Lathrop, Mark ; Brennan, Paul ; Bandinelli, Stefania ; Frayling, Timothy M. ; Guralnik, Jack M. ; Milaneschi, Yuri ; Perry, John R B ; Altshuler, David ; Elosua, Roberto ; Kathiresan, Sek ; Lucas, Gavin ; Melander, Olle ; O'Donnell, Christopher J. ; Schwartz, Stephen M. ; Voight, Benjamin F. ; Smit, Johannes H. ; De Geus, Eco J C ; Chanock, Stephen J. ; Gu, Fangyi ; Hankinson, Susan E. ; Hunter, David J. ; Chasman, Daniel I. ; Everett, Brendan M. ; Paré, Guillaume ; Ridker, Paul M. ; Li, Ming D. ; Maes, Hermine H. ; Audrain-McGovern, Janet ; Posthuma, Danielle ; Thornton, Laura M. ; Lerman, Caryn ; Rose, Jed E. ; Ioannidis, John P A ; Kraft, Peter ; Lin, Dan Yu ; Liu, Jason S. ; Tozzi, Federica ; Waterworth, Dawn M. ; Pillai, Sreekumar G. ; Muglia, Pierandrea ; Middleton, Lefkos ; Berrettini, Wade ; Knouff, Christopher W. ; Yuan, Xin ; Waeber, Gérard ; Vollenweider, Peter ; Preisig, Martin ; Wareham, Nicholas J. ; Zhao, Jing Hua ; Loos, Ruth J F ; Barroso, Inês ; Khaw, Kay Tee ; Grundy, Scott ; Barter, Philip ; Mahley, Robert ; Kesaniemi, Antero ; McPherson, Ruth ; Vincent, John ; Strauss, John ; Kennedy, James ; Farmer, Anne ; McGuffin, Peter ; Day, Richard ; Matthews, Keith ; Bakke, Per ; Gulsvik, Amund ; Lucae, Susanne ; Ising, Marcus ; Brueckl, Tanja ; Horstmann, Sonja ; Heinrich, Joachim ; Lamina, Claudia ; Polasek, Ozren ; Zgaga, Lina ; Huffman, Jennifer ; Campbell, Susan ; Kooner, Jaspal ; Chambers, John C. ; Burnett, Mary Susan ; Devaney, Joe ; Pichard, Augusto D. ; Kent, Kenneth M. ; Satler, Lowell ; Lindsay, Joseph M. ; Waksman, Ron ; Epstein, Stephen ; Wilson, Jim F. ; Wild, Sarah H. ; Campbell, Harry ; Vitart, Veronique ; Reilly, Muredach P. ; Li, Mingyao ; Qu, Liming ; Wilensky, Robert ; Matthai, William ; Hakonarson, Hakon H. ; Rader, Daniel J. ; Franke, Andre ; Wittig, Michael ; Schäfer, Arne ; Uda, Manuela ; Terracciano, Antonio ; Xiao, Xiangjun ; Busonero, Fabio ; Scheet, Paul ; Schlessinger, David ; Clair, David St ; Rujescu, Dan ; Abecasis, Gonçalo R. ; Grabe, Hans Jörgen ; Teumer, Alexander ; Völzke, Henry ; Petersmann, Astrid ; John, Ulrich ; Rudan, Igor ; Hayward, Caroline ; Wright, Alan F. ; Kolcic, Ivana ; Wright, Benjamin J. ; Balmforth, Anthony J. ; Anderson, Carl A. ; Ahmed, Tariq ; Mathew, Christopher G. ; Parkes, Miles ; Satsangi, Jack ; Caulfield, Mark ; Munroe, Patricia B. ; Farrall, Martin ; Dominiczak, Anna ; Worthington, Jane ; Thomson, Wendy ; Eyre, Steve ; Barton, Anne ; Mooser, Vincent ; Francks, Clyde. / A common biological basis of obesity and nicotine addiction. In: Translational Psychiatry. 2013 ; Vol. 3. pp. 1-7.
@article{5e7341936c0d40eb9061507655b13383,
title = "A common biological basis of obesity and nicotine addiction",
abstract = "Smoking influences body weight such that smokers weigh less than non-smokers and smoking cessation often leads to weight increase. The relationship between body weight and smoking is partly explained by the effect of nicotine on appetite and metabolism. However, the brain reward system is involved in the control of the intake of both food and tobacco. We evaluated the effect of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affecting body mass index (BMI) on smoking behavior, and tested the 32 SNPs identified in a meta-analysis for association with two smoking phenotypes, smoking initiation (SI) and the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) in an Icelandic sample (N=34 216 smokers). Combined according to their effect on BMI, the SNPs correlate with both SI (r=0.019, P=0.00054) and CPD (r=0.032, P=8.0 × 10-7). These findings replicate in a second large data set (N=127 274, thereof 76 242 smokers) for both SI (P=1.2 × 10-5) and CPD (P=9.3 × 10-5). Notably, the variant most strongly associated with BMI (rs1558902-A in FTO) did not associate with smoking behavior. The association with smoking behavior is not due to the effect of the SNPs on BMI. Our results strongly point to a common biological basis of the regulation of our appetite for tobacco and food, and thus the vulnerability to nicotine addiction and obesity.",
keywords = "Addiction, body mass index, nicotine dependence, obesity, smoking",
author = "Thorgeirsson, {T. E.} and Gudbjartsson, {D. F.} and P. Sulem and S. Besenbacher and U. Styrkarsdottir and G. Thorleifsson and Walters, {G. B.} and H. Furberg and Sullivan, {P. F.} and J. Marchini and McCarthy, {M. I.} and V. Steinthorsdottir and U. Thorsteinsdottir and K. Stefansson and Ida Surakka and Vink, {Jacqueline M.} and Najaf Amin and Frank Geller and Thorunn Rafnar and To{\~n}u Esko and Stefan Walter and Christian Gieger and Rajesh Rawal and Massimo Mangino and Inga Prokopenko and Reedik M{\"a}gi and Kaisu Keskitalo and Gudjonsdottir, {Iris H.} and Solveig Gretarsdottir and Hreinn Stefansson and Aulchenko, {Yurii S.} and Mari Nelis and Aben, {Katja K.} and {Den Heijer}, Martin and Nicole Soranzo and Valdes, {Ana M.} and Claire Steves and Uitterlinden, {Andr{\'e} G.} and Albert Hofman and Anke T{\"o}njes and Peter Kovacs and Hottenga, {Jouke Jan} and Gonneke Willemsen and Nicole Vogelzangs and Angela D{\"o}ring and Norbert Dahmen and Barbara Nitz and Samuli Ripatti and Markus Perola and Johannes Kettunen and Hartikainen, {Anna Liisa} and Anneli Pouta and Jaana Laitinen and Matti Isohanni and Shen Huei-Yi and Maxine Allen and Maria Krestyaninova and Hall, {Alistair S.} and Thompson, {John R.} and Hogni Oskarsson and Thorarinn Tyrfingsson and Kiemeney, {Lambertus A.} and J{\"a}rvelin, {Marjo Riitta} and Veikko Salomaa and Michael Stumvoll and Spector, {Tim D.} and Wichmann, {H. Erich} and Andres Metspalu and Samani, {Nilesh J.} and Penninx, {Brenda W.} and Oostra, {Ben A.} and Boomsma, {Dorret I.} and Henning Tiemeier and {Van Duijn}, {Cornelia M.} and Jaakko Kaprio and Gulcher, {Jeffrey R.} and Kim, {Yun Jung} and Jennifer Dackor and Eric Boerwinkle and Nora Franceschini and Diego Ardissino and Luisa Bernardinelli and Mannucci, {Pier M.} and Francesco Mauri and Merlini, {Piera A.} and Devin Absher and Assimes, {Themistocles L.} and Fortmann, {Stephen P.} and Carlos Iribarren and Knowles, {Joshua W.} and Thomas Quertermous and Luigi Ferrucci and Toshiko Tanaka and Bis, {Joshua C.} and Furberg, {Curt D.} and Talin Haritunians and Barbara McKnight and Psaty, {Bruce M.} and Taylor, {Kent D.} and Thacker, {Evan L.} and Peter Almgren and Leif Groop and Claes Ladenvall and Michael Boehnke and Jackson, {Anne U.} and Mohlke, {Karen L.} and Stringham, {Heather M.} and Jaakko Tuomilehto and Benjamin, {Emelia J.} and Hwang, {Shih Jen} and Daniel Levy and Preis, {Sarah Rosner} and Vasan, {Ramachandran S.} and Jubao Duan and Gejman, {Pablo V.} and Levinson, {Douglas F.} and Sanders, {Alan R.} and Jianxin Shi and Lips, {Esther H.} and McKay, {James D.} and Antonio Agudo and Luigi Barzan and Vladimir Bencko and Simone Benhamou and Xavier Castellsagu{\'e} and Cristina Canova and Conway, {David I.} and Eleonora Fabianova and Lenka Foretova and Vladimir Janout and Healy, {Claire M.} and Ivana Holc{\'a}tov{\'a} and Kristina Kjaerheim and Pagona Lagiou and Jolanta Lissowska and Ray Lowry and Macfarlane, {Tatiana V.} and Dana Mates and Lorenzo Richiardi and Peter Rudnai and Neonilia Szeszenia-Dabrowska and David Zaridze and Ariana Znaor and Mark Lathrop and Paul Brennan and Stefania Bandinelli and Frayling, {Timothy M.} and Guralnik, {Jack M.} and Yuri Milaneschi and Perry, {John R B} and David Altshuler and Roberto Elosua and Sek Kathiresan and Gavin Lucas and Olle Melander and O'Donnell, {Christopher J.} and Schwartz, {Stephen M.} and Voight, {Benjamin F.} and Smit, {Johannes H.} and {De Geus}, {Eco J C} and Chanock, {Stephen J.} and Fangyi Gu and Hankinson, {Susan E.} and Hunter, {David J.} and Chasman, {Daniel I.} and Everett, {Brendan M.} and Guillaume Par{\'e} and Ridker, {Paul M.} and Li, {Ming D.} and Maes, {Hermine H.} and Janet Audrain-McGovern and Danielle Posthuma and Thornton, {Laura M.} and Caryn Lerman and Rose, {Jed E.} and Ioannidis, {John P A} and Peter Kraft and Lin, {Dan Yu} and Liu, {Jason S.} and Federica Tozzi and Waterworth, {Dawn M.} and Pillai, {Sreekumar G.} and Pierandrea Muglia and Lefkos Middleton and Wade Berrettini and Knouff, {Christopher W.} and Xin Yuan and G{\'e}rard Waeber and Peter Vollenweider and Martin Preisig and Wareham, {Nicholas J.} and Zhao, {Jing Hua} and Loos, {Ruth J F} and In{\^e}s Barroso and Khaw, {Kay Tee} and Scott Grundy and Philip Barter and Robert Mahley and Antero Kesaniemi and Ruth McPherson and John Vincent and John Strauss and James Kennedy and Anne Farmer and Peter McGuffin and Richard Day and Keith Matthews and Per Bakke and Amund Gulsvik and Susanne Lucae and Marcus Ising and Tanja Brueckl and Sonja Horstmann and Joachim Heinrich and Claudia Lamina and Ozren Polasek and Lina Zgaga and Jennifer Huffman and Susan Campbell and Jaspal Kooner and Chambers, {John C.} and Burnett, {Mary Susan} and Joe Devaney and Pichard, {Augusto D.} and Kent, {Kenneth M.} and Lowell Satler and Lindsay, {Joseph M.} and Ron Waksman and Stephen Epstein and Wilson, {Jim F.} and Wild, {Sarah H.} and Harry Campbell and Veronique Vitart and Reilly, {Muredach P.} and Mingyao Li and Liming Qu and Robert Wilensky and William Matthai and Hakonarson, {Hakon H.} and Rader, {Daniel J.} and Andre Franke and Michael Wittig and Arne Sch{\"a}fer and Manuela Uda and Antonio Terracciano and Xiangjun Xiao and Fabio Busonero and Paul Scheet and David Schlessinger and Clair, {David St} and Dan Rujescu and Abecasis, {Gon{\cc}alo R.} and Grabe, {Hans J{\"o}rgen} and Alexander Teumer and Henry V{\"o}lzke and Astrid Petersmann and Ulrich John and Igor Rudan and Caroline Hayward and Wright, {Alan F.} and Ivana Kolcic and Wright, {Benjamin J.} and Balmforth, {Anthony J.} and Anderson, {Carl A.} and Tariq Ahmed and Mathew, {Christopher G.} and Miles Parkes and Jack Satsangi and Mark Caulfield and Munroe, {Patricia B.} and Martin Farrall and Anna Dominiczak and Jane Worthington and Wendy Thomson and Steve Eyre and Anne Barton and Vincent Mooser and Clyde Francks",
year = "2013",
doi = "10.1038/tp.2013.81",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "3",
pages = "1--7",
journal = "Translational Psychiatry",
issn = "2158-3188",
publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - A common biological basis of obesity and nicotine addiction

AU - Thorgeirsson, T. E.

AU - Gudbjartsson, D. F.

AU - Sulem, P.

AU - Besenbacher, S.

AU - Styrkarsdottir, U.

AU - Thorleifsson, G.

AU - Walters, G. B.

AU - Furberg, H.

AU - Sullivan, P. F.

AU - Marchini, J.

AU - McCarthy, M. I.

AU - Steinthorsdottir, V.

AU - Thorsteinsdottir, U.

AU - Stefansson, K.

AU - Surakka, Ida

AU - Vink, Jacqueline M.

AU - Amin, Najaf

AU - Geller, Frank

AU - Rafnar, Thorunn

AU - Esko, Toñu

AU - Walter, Stefan

AU - Gieger, Christian

AU - Rawal, Rajesh

AU - Mangino, Massimo

AU - Prokopenko, Inga

AU - Mägi, Reedik

AU - Keskitalo, Kaisu

AU - Gudjonsdottir, Iris H.

AU - Gretarsdottir, Solveig

AU - Stefansson, Hreinn

AU - Aulchenko, Yurii S.

AU - Nelis, Mari

AU - Aben, Katja K.

AU - Den Heijer, Martin

AU - Soranzo, Nicole

AU - Valdes, Ana M.

AU - Steves, Claire

AU - Uitterlinden, André G.

AU - Hofman, Albert

AU - Tönjes, Anke

AU - Kovacs, Peter

AU - Hottenga, Jouke Jan

AU - Willemsen, Gonneke

AU - Vogelzangs, Nicole

AU - Döring, Angela

AU - Dahmen, Norbert

AU - Nitz, Barbara

AU - Ripatti, Samuli

AU - Perola, Markus

AU - Kettunen, Johannes

AU - Hartikainen, Anna Liisa

AU - Pouta, Anneli

AU - Laitinen, Jaana

AU - Isohanni, Matti

AU - Huei-Yi, Shen

AU - Allen, Maxine

AU - Krestyaninova, Maria

AU - Hall, Alistair S.

AU - Thompson, John R.

AU - Oskarsson, Hogni

AU - Tyrfingsson, Thorarinn

AU - Kiemeney, Lambertus A.

AU - Järvelin, Marjo Riitta

AU - Salomaa, Veikko

AU - Stumvoll, Michael

AU - Spector, Tim D.

AU - Wichmann, H. Erich

AU - Metspalu, Andres

AU - Samani, Nilesh J.

AU - Penninx, Brenda W.

AU - Oostra, Ben A.

AU - Boomsma, Dorret I.

AU - Tiemeier, Henning

AU - Van Duijn, Cornelia M.

AU - Kaprio, Jaakko

AU - Gulcher, Jeffrey R.

AU - Kim, Yun Jung

AU - Dackor, Jennifer

AU - Boerwinkle, Eric

AU - Franceschini, Nora

AU - Ardissino, Diego

AU - Bernardinelli, Luisa

AU - Mannucci, Pier M.

AU - Mauri, Francesco

AU - Merlini, Piera A.

AU - Absher, Devin

AU - Assimes, Themistocles L.

AU - Fortmann, Stephen P.

AU - Iribarren, Carlos

AU - Knowles, Joshua W.

AU - Quertermous, Thomas

AU - Ferrucci, Luigi

AU - Tanaka, Toshiko

AU - Bis, Joshua C.

AU - Furberg, Curt D.

AU - Haritunians, Talin

AU - McKnight, Barbara

AU - Psaty, Bruce M.

AU - Taylor, Kent D.

AU - Thacker, Evan L.

AU - Almgren, Peter

AU - Groop, Leif

AU - Ladenvall, Claes

AU - Boehnke, Michael

AU - Jackson, Anne U.

AU - Mohlke, Karen L.

AU - Stringham, Heather M.

AU - Tuomilehto, Jaakko

AU - Benjamin, Emelia J.

AU - Hwang, Shih Jen

AU - Levy, Daniel

AU - Preis, Sarah Rosner

AU - Vasan, Ramachandran S.

AU - Duan, Jubao

AU - Gejman, Pablo V.

AU - Levinson, Douglas F.

AU - Sanders, Alan R.

AU - Shi, Jianxin

AU - Lips, Esther H.

AU - McKay, James D.

AU - Agudo, Antonio

AU - Barzan, Luigi

AU - Bencko, Vladimir

AU - Benhamou, Simone

AU - Castellsagué, Xavier

AU - Canova, Cristina

AU - Conway, David I.

AU - Fabianova, Eleonora

AU - Foretova, Lenka

AU - Janout, Vladimir

AU - Healy, Claire M.

AU - Holcátová, Ivana

AU - Kjaerheim, Kristina

AU - Lagiou, Pagona

AU - Lissowska, Jolanta

AU - Lowry, Ray

AU - Macfarlane, Tatiana V.

AU - Mates, Dana

AU - Richiardi, Lorenzo

AU - Rudnai, Peter

AU - Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia

AU - Zaridze, David

AU - Znaor, Ariana

AU - Lathrop, Mark

AU - Brennan, Paul

AU - Bandinelli, Stefania

AU - Frayling, Timothy M.

AU - Guralnik, Jack M.

AU - Milaneschi, Yuri

AU - Perry, John R B

AU - Altshuler, David

AU - Elosua, Roberto

AU - Kathiresan, Sek

AU - Lucas, Gavin

AU - Melander, Olle

AU - O'Donnell, Christopher J.

AU - Schwartz, Stephen M.

AU - Voight, Benjamin F.

AU - Smit, Johannes H.

AU - De Geus, Eco J C

AU - Chanock, Stephen J.

AU - Gu, Fangyi

AU - Hankinson, Susan E.

AU - Hunter, David J.

AU - Chasman, Daniel I.

AU - Everett, Brendan M.

AU - Paré, Guillaume

AU - Ridker, Paul M.

AU - Li, Ming D.

AU - Maes, Hermine H.

AU - Audrain-McGovern, Janet

AU - Posthuma, Danielle

AU - Thornton, Laura M.

AU - Lerman, Caryn

AU - Rose, Jed E.

AU - Ioannidis, John P A

AU - Kraft, Peter

AU - Lin, Dan Yu

AU - Liu, Jason S.

AU - Tozzi, Federica

AU - Waterworth, Dawn M.

AU - Pillai, Sreekumar G.

AU - Muglia, Pierandrea

AU - Middleton, Lefkos

AU - Berrettini, Wade

AU - Knouff, Christopher W.

AU - Yuan, Xin

AU - Waeber, Gérard

AU - Vollenweider, Peter

AU - Preisig, Martin

AU - Wareham, Nicholas J.

AU - Zhao, Jing Hua

AU - Loos, Ruth J F

AU - Barroso, Inês

AU - Khaw, Kay Tee

AU - Grundy, Scott

AU - Barter, Philip

AU - Mahley, Robert

AU - Kesaniemi, Antero

AU - McPherson, Ruth

AU - Vincent, John

AU - Strauss, John

AU - Kennedy, James

AU - Farmer, Anne

AU - McGuffin, Peter

AU - Day, Richard

AU - Matthews, Keith

AU - Bakke, Per

AU - Gulsvik, Amund

AU - Lucae, Susanne

AU - Ising, Marcus

AU - Brueckl, Tanja

AU - Horstmann, Sonja

AU - Heinrich, Joachim

AU - Lamina, Claudia

AU - Polasek, Ozren

AU - Zgaga, Lina

AU - Huffman, Jennifer

AU - Campbell, Susan

AU - Kooner, Jaspal

AU - Chambers, John C.

AU - Burnett, Mary Susan

AU - Devaney, Joe

AU - Pichard, Augusto D.

AU - Kent, Kenneth M.

AU - Satler, Lowell

AU - Lindsay, Joseph M.

AU - Waksman, Ron

AU - Epstein, Stephen

AU - Wilson, Jim F.

AU - Wild, Sarah H.

AU - Campbell, Harry

AU - Vitart, Veronique

AU - Reilly, Muredach P.

AU - Li, Mingyao

AU - Qu, Liming

AU - Wilensky, Robert

AU - Matthai, William

AU - Hakonarson, Hakon H.

AU - Rader, Daniel J.

AU - Franke, Andre

AU - Wittig, Michael

AU - Schäfer, Arne

AU - Uda, Manuela

AU - Terracciano, Antonio

AU - Xiao, Xiangjun

AU - Busonero, Fabio

AU - Scheet, Paul

AU - Schlessinger, David

AU - Clair, David St

AU - Rujescu, Dan

AU - Abecasis, Gonçalo R.

AU - Grabe, Hans Jörgen

AU - Teumer, Alexander

AU - Völzke, Henry

AU - Petersmann, Astrid

AU - John, Ulrich

AU - Rudan, Igor

AU - Hayward, Caroline

AU - Wright, Alan F.

AU - Kolcic, Ivana

AU - Wright, Benjamin J.

AU - Balmforth, Anthony J.

AU - Anderson, Carl A.

AU - Ahmed, Tariq

AU - Mathew, Christopher G.

AU - Parkes, Miles

AU - Satsangi, Jack

AU - Caulfield, Mark

AU - Munroe, Patricia B.

AU - Farrall, Martin

AU - Dominiczak, Anna

AU - Worthington, Jane

AU - Thomson, Wendy

AU - Eyre, Steve

AU - Barton, Anne

AU - Mooser, Vincent

AU - Francks, Clyde

PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - Smoking influences body weight such that smokers weigh less than non-smokers and smoking cessation often leads to weight increase. The relationship between body weight and smoking is partly explained by the effect of nicotine on appetite and metabolism. However, the brain reward system is involved in the control of the intake of both food and tobacco. We evaluated the effect of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affecting body mass index (BMI) on smoking behavior, and tested the 32 SNPs identified in a meta-analysis for association with two smoking phenotypes, smoking initiation (SI) and the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) in an Icelandic sample (N=34 216 smokers). Combined according to their effect on BMI, the SNPs correlate with both SI (r=0.019, P=0.00054) and CPD (r=0.032, P=8.0 × 10-7). These findings replicate in a second large data set (N=127 274, thereof 76 242 smokers) for both SI (P=1.2 × 10-5) and CPD (P=9.3 × 10-5). Notably, the variant most strongly associated with BMI (rs1558902-A in FTO) did not associate with smoking behavior. The association with smoking behavior is not due to the effect of the SNPs on BMI. Our results strongly point to a common biological basis of the regulation of our appetite for tobacco and food, and thus the vulnerability to nicotine addiction and obesity.

AB - Smoking influences body weight such that smokers weigh less than non-smokers and smoking cessation often leads to weight increase. The relationship between body weight and smoking is partly explained by the effect of nicotine on appetite and metabolism. However, the brain reward system is involved in the control of the intake of both food and tobacco. We evaluated the effect of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affecting body mass index (BMI) on smoking behavior, and tested the 32 SNPs identified in a meta-analysis for association with two smoking phenotypes, smoking initiation (SI) and the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) in an Icelandic sample (N=34 216 smokers). Combined according to their effect on BMI, the SNPs correlate with both SI (r=0.019, P=0.00054) and CPD (r=0.032, P=8.0 × 10-7). These findings replicate in a second large data set (N=127 274, thereof 76 242 smokers) for both SI (P=1.2 × 10-5) and CPD (P=9.3 × 10-5). Notably, the variant most strongly associated with BMI (rs1558902-A in FTO) did not associate with smoking behavior. The association with smoking behavior is not due to the effect of the SNPs on BMI. Our results strongly point to a common biological basis of the regulation of our appetite for tobacco and food, and thus the vulnerability to nicotine addiction and obesity.

KW - Addiction

KW - body mass index

KW - nicotine dependence

KW - obesity

KW - smoking

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84886689754&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84886689754&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1038/tp.2013.81

DO - 10.1038/tp.2013.81

M3 - Article

VL - 3

SP - 1

EP - 7

JO - Translational Psychiatry

JF - Translational Psychiatry

SN - 2158-3188

M1 - e308

ER -