A clinical prediction rule to identify patients at heightened risk for early demise following cardiac resynchronization therapy

John Rickard, Alan Cheng, David Spragg, Daniel Cantillon, Bryan Baranowski, Niraj Varma, Bruce L. Wilkoff, W. H.Wilson Tang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Prediction Rule to Identify Patients at High Risk for Early Demise Following CRT Background In patients with advanced heart failure, the decision of whether to pursue cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) or to proceed directly to advanced heart failure therapies can be challenging. We sought to create a prediction rule to identify patients with advanced systolic heart failure at heightened risk of rapid deterioration despite receiving CRT. Methods Clinical data were collected on consecutive patients with advanced heart failure presenting for a new CRT device at the Cleveland Clinic between February 12, 2002 and July 8, 2008. Early demise was defined as death, left ventricular assist device, or heart transplant within 6 months following CRT implant. Using a multivariate model, variables associated with early demise were identified and a prediction rule created. Results A total of 879 patients were included of whom 47 met criteria for early demise. Using forward stepwise regression followed by a bootstrapping analysis, the final model included: left ventricular end-diastolic diameter ≥6.5 cm (OR 3.23 [1.72-6.06 g], P < 0.001), the presence of a non-left bundle branch block (non-LBBB) morphology (OR 2.18 [1.18-4.04, P = 0.013]), creatinine ≥1.5 mg/dL (OR 2.98 [1.52-5.49], P < 0.001), and lack of or intolerance to β-blocker use (OR 2.80 [1.46-5.39], P = 0.002). The specificity for ≥2 and ≥3 risk factors was 72.6% and 94.6%, respectively. Conclusions Left ventricular dilatation, the presence of a non-LBBB morphology, renal dysfunction, and lack of or intolerance to β-blockers are associated with early demise following CRT. In patients with at least 3 of these factors, bypassing CRT with early adoption of advanced heart failure therapies may be considered given the high specificity for rapid decline.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)278-282
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of cardiovascular electrophysiology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2014


  • cardiac resynchronization therapy
  • heart failure
  • implantable cardiac defibrillator
  • left bundle branch block
  • mortality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)

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