2Am-DNT induces cell death and apoptosis in human cells

Hirendranath Banerjee, Z. Hawkins, M. Yakubu, D. Smoot, M. Asktorab, S. K. Dutta

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


During microbial or mammalian cell metabolism, TNT (2,4,6-tinitrotoluene) is reduced to 2Am-DNT (2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene), 4Am-DNT, or 2,4-diamino-NT (2,4-diaminonitrotoluelne) depending on the specific organism. The metabolite 2Am-DNT is the most common of the TBT biotransformation pathways in bacterial and fungal species studied to date. in the mammalian liver cells, TNT is metabolized to 2Am-DNT by the P450 enzyme system. Apoptosis is rapidly emerging as a relevant endpoint for detecting low-dose toxin exposure. We report in this study that 2Am-DNT treatment of mammalian cells causes cell death by apoptosis. Cell death was assayed by the Trypan Blue method. Apoptotic changes, such as DNA break down, were detected in treated cells by the production of a dark-brown DAB (diaminobenzidine) signal using the Fragel™ Klenow DNA fragment detection system, by immunohistochemical techniques with fluorescence microscopy, and by using a microplate reader for a single-stranded DNA binding assay. All of these results showed that 2am-DNT is toxic to mammalian cells and induces apoptosis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)231-234
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2009


  • Apoptosis
  • Breast cancer cells
  • Cytotoxicity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Toxicology
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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