Hypertension is diagnosed and treated based on blood pressure (BP) readings obtained in the clinic setting. Positive HIV status is associated with a higher prevalence of abnormal diurnal BP patterns, diagnosed with ambulatory BP monitoring rather than the conventional method of BP measurement. Little is known about ambulatory BP profiles in people living with HIV (PLHIV) in low-income countries, especially within sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, we compared 24-h ambulatory BP profiles of 140 HIV-positive individuals vs. profiles in 166 HIV negative individuals living in rural Uganda. HIV was well-controlled, with all HIV seropositive participants reporting use of anti-retroviral therapy, and ~123 (88%) having undetectable viral load. Most participants reported ART use duration of less than 10 years. Compared to HIV negative participants, HIV positive participants had lower median 24-h systolic BP (110.4 mmHg (IQR: 105.7, 118.7) vs 117.7 mmHg (IQR: 110.8, 129.8), p < 0.001), and 24-h diastolic BP (69.2 mmHg (IQR: 65.0, 74.9) vs. 71.9 mmHg (IQR: 67.2, 78.1), p = 0.004). Adjusted results showed greater percentage systolic nocturnal dipping among PLHIV compared to HIV negative individuals (difference = 2.70 (IQR: 0.94, 4.47), p < 0.05). Results of the adjusted Poisson regression suggested lower prevalence of 24-h and night hypertension among HIV positives compared to HIV negative, but were not statistically significant. Our data suggest that continuous 24-h BP measurements are lower in PLHIV on ART compared to HIV negative individuals.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine