Background. A prospective phase II Histiocyte Society study, LCH-S-98, evaluated the efficacy of 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine (2-CdA) monotherapy as salvage therapy in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). Procedures. Patients with poor and intermediate risk LCH not responsive to initial therapy and patients with low-risk chronic recurrent LCH were evaluated for response and survival after treatment with 2-6 courses of 2-CdA. Results. Forty-six patients (55%) had involvement of risk organs; lung, liver, spleen, or hematopoetic system (RO+), 37 (45%) were RO-. Twenty-two percent of RO+ patients had a good response while 44% progressed, 62% RO- patients responded, and 11% progressed. Two-year predicted survival is 48% for RO+, 97% for RO- patients, 100% for RO+ patients reactivating in non-risk organs, 67% for RO- patients reactivating in risk organs. Two-year pSU for the entire group is 68%. Seventy-three percent of patients with a poor response to 2-CdA died. Sixty-five percent patients >2 years old and 30% <2 years old survived. There was a median of 26 months from diagnosis to 2-CdA for responders compared to a median of 5 months for non-responders. Twenty-one percent of patients treated <12 months and 57% treated >12 months from diagnosis responded. Conclusion. 2-CdA is active in LCH. It produces a higher response rate in patients with low-risk multisystem or multifocal bone disease than those with risk organ involvement. "Risk" patients who fail to respond to 2-CdA have a high mortality. Patient age at 2-CdA therapy and length of time from diagnosis to 2-CdA significantly affect response and survival.
- Salvage therapy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health