The cyclopentenone prostaglandin 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) induces apoptosis in various cell types. However, the underlying mechanism of 15d-PGJ2-induced apoptosis is not fully understood. The present study was undertaken to determine the molecular mechanism by which 15d-PGJ2 induces apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblastic cells. 15d-PGJ2 caused a concentration- and time-dependent apoptotic cell death. 15d-PGJ2 induced a transient activation of ERK1/2 and sustained activation of JNK. 15d-PGJ2-induced cell death was prevented by the JNK inhibitor SP6001, but not by inhibitors of ERK1/2 and p38. JNK activation by 15d-PGJ2 was blocked by antioxidants N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and GSH. 15d-PGJ2 caused ROS generation and 15d-PGJ2-induced cell death was prevented by antioxidants, suggesting involvement of ROS generation in 15d-PGJ2-induced cell death. 15d-PGJ2 triggered the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway indicated by enhanced Bax expression, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release, and caspase-3 activation. The JNK inhibitor blocked these events induced by 15d-PGJ2. Taken together, these results suggest that the 15d-PGJ2 induces cell death through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway dependent of ROS and JNK activation in osteoblastic cells.
- Mitochondrial membrane potential
- Reactive oxygen species
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