Emad Boctor

Assistant Professor

20012019
If you made any changes in Pure, your changes will be visible here soon.

Research Output 2001 2019

Filter
Conference contribution

3D-guided CT reconstruction using time-of-flight camera

Ismail, M., Taguchi, K., Xu, J., Tsui, B. & Boctor, E., 2011, Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE. Vol. 7964. 796429

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

projection
Cameras
cameras
Radon
Computer-Assisted Image Processing

5-DoF trajectory reconstruction for handheld ultrasound with local sensors

Stolka, P. J., Choi, J., Wang, J., Choti, M. & Boctor, E., 2009, Proceedings - IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium. 5441735

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

trajectories
sensors
probes
mice
acquisition

Ablation monitoring with a regularized 3D elastography technique

Rivaz, H., Fleming, I., Matinfar, M., Ahmad, O., Khamene, A., Choti, M., Hager, G. & Boctor, E., 2008, Proceedings - IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium. p. 308-312 5 p. 4803710

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

ablation
lesions
opacity
liver
continuity

Ablation monitoring with elastography: 2D in-vivo and 3D ex-vivo studies

Rivaz, H., Fleming, I., Assumpcao, L., Fichtinger, G., Hamper, U. M., Choti, M., Hager, G. & Boctor, E., 2008, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics). PART 2 ed. Vol. 5242 LNCS. p. 458-466 9 p. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics); vol. 5242 LNCS, no. PART 2).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Ablation
Monitoring
Dynamic programming
Cost functions
Dynamic Programming

Accuracy of localization of prostate lesions using manual palpation and ultrasound elastography

Kuta, C., Schneider, C., -Monroe, N. C., Su, L. M., Boctor, E. & Taylor, R. H., 2009, Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE. Vol. 7261. 726128

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Elasticity Imaging Techniques
Palpation
lesions
Prostate
tumors

Active echo: A new paradigm for ultrasound calibration

Guo, X., Cheng, A., Zhang, H. K., Kang, H. J., Etienne-Cummings, R. & Boctor, E., 2014, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics). PART 2 ed. Springer Verlag, Vol. 8674 LNCS. p. 397-404 8 p. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics); vol. 8674 LNCS, no. PART 2).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Phantom
Ultrasound
Calibration
Ultrasonics
Paradigm

Active point out-of-plane ultrasound calibration

Cheng, A., Guo, X., Zhang, H. K., Kang, H. J., Etienne-Cummings, R. & Boctor, E., 2015, Medical Imaging 2015: Image-Guided Procedures, Robotic Interventions, and Modeling. SPIE, Vol. 9415. 94150W

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Calibration
Ultrasonics
Computer-Assisted Surgery
Error analysis
Surgery

A dual-armed robotic system for intraoperative ultrasound guided hepatic ablative therapy: A prospective study

Boctor, E., Fischer, G., Choti, M. A., Fichtinger, G. & Taylor, R. H., 2004, Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation. 3 ed. Vol. 2004. p. 2517-2522 6 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Robotics
Ultrasonics
Ultrasonography
Needles
Scanning

A hybrid surface/image-based approach to facilitate ultrasound/CT registration

Billings, S., Kapoor, A., Keil, M., Wood, B. J. & Boctor, E., 2011, Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE. Vol. 7968. 79680V

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Ultrasonics
testing time
surgeons
probes
registers

A new robotic ultrasound system for tracking a catheter with an active piezoelectric element

Ma, Q., Davis, J. D., Cheng, A., Kim, Y., Chirikjian, G. S. & Boctor, E., Nov 28 2016, IROS 2016 - 2016 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., Vol. 2016-November. p. 2321-2328 8 p. 7759362

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Catheters
Robotics
Ultrasonics
Jetties
Visual servoing

A novel 3D ultrasound thermometry method for HIFU ablation using an ultrasound element

Kim, Y., Audigier, C., Ellens, N. & Boctor, E., Oct 31 2017, 2017 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, IUS 2017. IEEE Computer Society, 8091592

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

ablation
temperature measurement
cost effectiveness
samplers
physics

A novel 3D ultrasound thermometry method for HIFU ablation using an ultrasound element

Kim, Y., Audigier, C., Ellens, N. & Boctor, E., Oct 31 2017, 2017 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, IUS 2017. IEEE Computer Society, 8092773

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

ablation
temperature measurement
magnetic resonance
temperature
acoustics

A novel closed form solution for ultrasound calibration

Boctor, E., Viswanathan, A., Choti, M., Taylor, R. H., Fichtinger, G. & Hager, G., 2004, 2004 2nd IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: Macro to Nano. Vol. 1. p. 527-530 4 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Ultrasonics
Calibration
Sensors
Experiments

A novel method for monitoring liver ablation using ultrasound elastography

Rivaz, H., Kapoor, A., Fleming, I., Hager, G. & Boctor, E., 2010, Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE. Vol. 7629. 762913

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Elasticity Imaging Techniques
Ablation
liver
Liver
lesions

A Novel Ultrasound Imaging Method for 2D Temperature Monitoring of Thermal Ablation

Audigier, C., Kim, Y. & Boctor, E., 2017, Imaging for Patient-Customized Simulations and Systems for Point-of-Care Ultrasound - International Workshops, BIVPCS 2017 and POCUS 2017 Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2017, Proceedings. Springer Verlag, Vol. 10549 LNCS. p. 154-162 9 p. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics); vol. 10549 LNCS).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Ablation
Ultrasound
Ultrasonics
Imaging
Monitoring

Application of external tracking in ultrasound elasticity imaging

Foroughi, P., Hager, G., Wacker, F. K. & Boctor, E., 2010, Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE. Vol. 7629. 76291B

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Elasticity
Ultrasonography
elastic properties
Ultrasonics
Imaging techniques

A rapid calibration method for registration and 3D tracking of ultrasound images using spatial localizer

Boctor, E., Jain, A., Choti, M. A., Taylor, R. H. & Fichtinger, G., 2003, Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering. Walker, W. F. & Insana, M. F. (eds.). Vol. 5035. p. 521-532 12 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Ultrasonics
Calibration
fixtures
sensors
surgery

A robust meshing and calibration approach for sensorless freehand 3D ultrasound

Rivaz, H., Boctor, E. & Fichtinger, G., 2007, Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE. Vol. 6513. 651318

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Speckle
Ultrasonics
Calibration
Beef
Distance measurement

Beam steering approach for speckle characterization and out-of-plane motion estimation in real tissue

Rivaz, H., Zellars, R., Hager, G., Fichtinger, G. & Boctor, E., 2007, Proceedings - IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium. p. 781-784 4 p. 4409773

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Motion estimation
Speckle
Beef
Tissue
Liver

B-mode ultrasound pose recovery via surgical fiducial segmentation and tracking

Asoni, A., Ketcha, M., Kuo, N., Chen, L., Boctor, E., O'Brien-Coon, D. & Prince, J. L., 2015, Medical Imaging 2015: Image-Guided Procedures, Robotic Interventions, and Modeling. SPIE, Vol. 9415. 94152C

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

surgery
Ultrasonics
recovery
Point-of-Care Systems
Recovery

Bootstrapped ultrasound calibration

Boctor, E., Iordachita, I., Choti, M. A., Hager, G. & Fichtinger, G., 2006, Studies in Health Technology and Informatics. Vol. 119. p. 61-66 6 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Calibration
Ultrasonics
Workflow
Sensors
Sensitivity analysis

Catheter tracking in an interventional photoacoustic surgical system

Cheng, A., Itsarachaiyot, Y., Kim, Y., Zhang, H. K., Taylor, R. H. & Boctor, E., 2017, Medical Imaging 2017: Image-Guided Procedures, Robotic Interventions, and Modeling. SPIE, Vol. 10135. 1013527

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Photoacoustic effect
Catheters
markers
Imaging techniques
Cameras

Catheter tracking in an interventional photoacoustic surgical system

Cheng, A., Kim, Y., Zhang, H. K., Taylor, R. H. & Boctor, E., Dec 16 2016, 2016 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO 2016. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 7787359

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Photoacoustic effect
Catheters
Imaging techniques

CIS-UltraCal: An open-source ultrasound calibration toolkit

Kon, R., Leven, J., Kothapalli, K., Boctor, E., Fichtinger, G., Hager, G. & Taylor, R. H., 2005, Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE. Walker, W. F. & Emelianov, S. Y. (eds.). Vol. 5750. p. 516-523 8 p. 56

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Ultrasonics
Calibration
Radon
Graphical user interfaces
Application programming interfaces (API)

CISUS: An integrated 3D ultrasound system for IGT using a modular tracking API

Boctor, E., Viswanathan, A., Pieper, S., Choti, M. A., Taylor, R. H., Kikinis, R. & Fichtinger, G., 2004, Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering. Galloway, Jr., R. L. (ed.). Vol. 5367. p. 247-256 10 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

application programming interface
Application programming interfaces (API)
therapy
Ultrasonics
Robotics

Classification of kidney and liver tissue using ultrasound backscatter data

Aalamifar, F., Rivaz, H., Cerrolaza, J. J., Jago, J., Safdar, N., Boctor, E. & Linguraru, M. G., 2015, Medical Imaging 2015: Ultrasonic Imaging and Tomography. SPIE, Vol. 9419. 94190X

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

kidneys
liver
Liver
Ultrasonics
Tissue

CNN and back-projection: Limited angle ultrasound tomography for speed of sound estimation

Anas, E. M. A., Cheng, A., Seifabadi, R., Wu, Y., Aalamifar, F., Wood, B., Rahmim, A. & Boctor, E., Jan 1 2019, Medical Imaging 2019: Ultrasonic Imaging and Tomography. Byram, B. C. & Ruiter, N. V. (eds.). SPIE, 109550M. (Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE; vol. 10955).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Acoustic wave velocity
Tomography
tomography
Ultrasonics
projection

Coherence-based photoacoustic imaging of brachytherapy seeds implanted in a canine prostate

Lediju Bell, M. A., Song, D. Y. & Boctor, E., 2014, Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE. SPIE, Vol. 9040. 90400Q

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Photoacoustic effect
Brachytherapy
Seed
Canidae
seeds

Computational modeling of radiofrequency ablation: Evaluation on ex vivo data using ultrasound monitoring

Audigier, C., Kim, Y., Dillow, A. & Boctor, E., 2017, Medical Imaging 2017: Image-Guided Procedures, Robotic Interventions, and Modeling. SPIE, Vol. 10135. 1013525

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Ablation
ablation
Ultrasonics
Temperature
Monitoring

Concurrent photoacoustic markers for direct three-dimensional ultrasound to video registration

Cheng, A., Guo, X., Kang, H. J., Tavakoli, B., Kang, J. U., Taylor, R. H. & Boctor, E., 2014, Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE. SPIE, Vol. 8943. 89435J

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Photoacoustic effect
markers
Surgical Equipment
Ultrasonics
registers

Conformal radiofrequency ablation to validate ultrasound thermometry

Audigier, C., Kim, Y., Ziegle, J., Friebe, M. & Boctor, E., Jan 1 2019, Medical Imaging 2019: Image-Guided Procedures, Robotic Interventions, and Modeling. Fei, B. & Linte, C. A. (eds.). SPIE, 1095122. (Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE; vol. 10951).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Thermometry
Ablation
ablation
temperature measurement
Ultrasonics

Consistent evaluation of an ultrasound-guided surgical navigation system by utilizing an active validation platform

Kim, Y., Kim, S. & Boctor, E., 2017, Medical Imaging 2017: Image-Guided Procedures, Robotic Interventions, and Modeling. SPIE, Vol. 10135. 1013524

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Navigation systems
navigation
needles
Needles
platforms

Co-robotic synthetic tracked aperture ultrasound imaging with cross-correlation based dynamic error compensation and virtual fixture control

Zhang, H. K., Finocchi, R., Apkarian, K. & Boctor, E., Nov 1 2016, 2016 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, IUS 2016. IEEE Computer Society, Vol. 2016-November. 7728522

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

fixtures
robotics
cross correlation
apertures
robot arms

Co-robotic ultrasound imaging: A cooperative force control approach

Finocchi, R., Aalamifar, F., Fang, T. Y., Taylor, R. H. & Boctor, E., 2017, Medical Imaging 2017: Image-Guided Procedures, Robotic Interventions, and Modeling. SPIE, Vol. 10135. 1013510

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Physical Exertion
approach control
Force control
Robotics
robotics

Co-robotic ultrasound tomography: Dual arm setup and error analysis

Aalamifar, F., Jiang, D., Zhang, H. K., Cheng, A., Guo, X., Khurana, R., Iordachita, I. & Boctor, E., 2015, Medical Imaging 2015: Ultrasonic Imaging and Tomography. SPIE, Vol. 9419. 94190N

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

error analysis
Robotics
robotics
Error analysis
Tomography

Correlation of ultrasound tomography to MRI and pathology for the detection of prostate cancer

Seifabadi, R., Cheng, A., Malik, B., Kishimoto, S., Wiskin, J., Munasinghe, J., Negussie, A. H., Bakhutashvili, I., Krishna, M. C., Choyke, P., Pinto, P., Rahmim, A., Boctor, E., Merino, M., Lenox, M., Turkbey, B. & Wood, B. J., Jan 1 2019, Medical Imaging 2019: Ultrasonic Imaging and Tomography. Byram, B. C. & Ruiter, N. V. (eds.). SPIE, 109550C. (Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE; vol. 10955).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

pathology
Pathology
Magnetic resonance imaging
Tomography
Prostatic Neoplasms

CUST: CNN for ultrasound thermal image reconstruction using sparse time-of-flight information

Kim, Y., Audigier, C., Anas, E. M. A., Ziegle, J., Friebe, M. & Boctor, E., Jan 1 2018, Simulation, Image Processing, and Ultrasound Systems for Assisted Diagnosis and Navigation - International Workshops, POCUS 2018, BIVPCS 2018, CuRIOUS 2018, and CPM 2018, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2018, Proceedings. Aylward, S., Simpson, A., Maier-Hein, L., Martel, A., Chabanas, M., Tavares, J. M., Reinertsen, I., Taylor, Z., Xiao, Y., Farahani, K., Stoyanov, D., Li, S. & Rivaz, H. (eds.). Springer Verlag, p. 29-37 9 p. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics); vol. 11042 LNCS).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Time-of-flight
Image Reconstruction
Ultrasound
Image reconstruction
Ultrasonics

Deep learning image reconstruction method for limited-angle ultrasound tomography in prostate cancer

Cheng, A., Kim, Y., Anas, E. M. A., Rahmim, A., Boctor, E., Seifabadi, R. & Wood, B. J., Jan 1 2019, Medical Imaging 2019: Ultrasonic Imaging and Tomography. Byram, B. C. & Ruiter, N. V. (eds.). SPIE, 1095516. (Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE; vol. 10955).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Computer-Assisted Image Processing
image reconstruction
Image reconstruction
learning
Tomography

Design and development of an ultrasound calibration phantom and system

Cheng, A., Ackerman, M. K., Chirikjian, G. S. & Boctor, E., 2014, Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE. SPIE, Vol. 9036. 903624

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Calibration
Ultrasonics
Computer-Assisted Surgery
Software
Physics

Detecting occlusion inside a ventricular catheter using photoacoustic imaging through skull

Tavakoli, B., Guo, X., Taylor, R. H., Kang, J. U. & Boctor, E., 2014, Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE. SPIE, Vol. 8943. 89434O

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

skull
Photoacoustic effect
Catheters
occlusion
shunts

Direct ultrasound to video registration using photoacoustic markers from a single image pose

Cheng, A., Guo, X., Kang, H. J., Choti, M. A., Kang, J. U., Taylor, R. H. & Boctor, E., 2015, Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic and Surgical Guidance Systems XIII. SPIE, Vol. 9313. 93130X

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Photoacoustic effect
Transducers
markers
Ultrasonics
registers

Elasticity-based three dimensional ultrasound real-time volume rendering

Boctor, E., Matinfar, M., Ahmad, O., Rivaz, H., Choti Michael, M. & Taylor, R. H., 2009, Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE. Vol. 7261. 72612V

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Volume rendering
Elasticity
elastic properties
Ultrasonics
Opacity

Enabling low-cost point-of-care ultrasound imaging system using single element transducer and delta configuration actuator

Xu, K., Kim, Y., Boctor, E. & Zhang, H. K., Jan 1 2019, Medical Imaging 2019: Image-Guided Procedures, Robotic Interventions, and Modeling. Fei, B. & Linte, C. A. (eds.). SPIE, 109510W. (Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE; vol. 10951).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Point-of-Care Systems
spine
Terminal Repeat Sequences
Transducers
needles

Enabling technologies for natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (N.O.T.E.S) using robotically guided elasticity imaging

Şen, H. T., Deshmukh, N., Goldman, R., Kazanzides, P., Taylor, R. H., Boctor, E. & Simaan, N., 2012, Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE. Vol. 8316. 83161Y

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Natural Orifice Endoscopic Surgery
Elasticity Imaging Techniques
Elasticity
orifices
Orifices

Enabling technologies for robot assisted ultrasound tomography: System setup and calibration

Aalamifar, F., Khurana, R., Cheng, A., Taylor, R. H., Iordachita, I. & Boctor, E., 2014, Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE. SPIE, Vol. 9040. 90401X

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

robots
Calibration
Tomography
tomography
Ultrasonics

Enabling vendor independent photoacoustic imaging systems with asynchronous laser source

Wu, Y., Zhang, H. K. & Boctor, E., Jan 1 2018, Photons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing 2018. SPIE, Vol. 10494. 104945M

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Photoacoustic effect
Imaging systems
Light sources
Lasers
synchronism

Experimental assessment of energy requirements and tool tip visibility for photoacoustic-guided endonasal surgery

Lediju Bell, M. A., Dagle, A. B., Kazanzides, P. & Boctor, E., 2016, Photons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing 2016. SPIE, Vol. 9708. 97080D

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Sphenoid Bone
energy requirements
Photoacoustic effect
visibility
surgery

Feasibility of transcranial photoacoustic imaging for interventional guidance of endonasal surgeries

Lediju Bell, M. A., Ostrowski, A. K., Kazanzides, P. & Boctor, E., 2014, Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE. SPIE, Vol. 8943. 894307

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Photoacoustic effect
Transducers
Optical Fibers
Skull
surgery

Feasibility study of robotically tracked photoacoustic computed tomography

Zhang, H. K., Aalamifar, F., Kang, H. J. & Boctor, E., 2015, Medical Imaging 2015: Ultrasonic Imaging and Tomography. SPIE, Vol. 9419. 941908

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Photoacoustic effect
Feasibility Studies
Transducers
Tomography
transducers

Freehand spatial-angular compounding of photoacoustic images

Kang, H. J., Lediju Bell, M. A., Guo, X., Taylor, R. H. & Boctor, E., 2014, Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE. SPIE, Vol. 8943. 894361

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

compounding
Photoacoustic effect
Noise
Signal-To-Noise Ratio
Image quality